EAT  進食

PUT into one's MOUTH so as to SWALLOW.
CONSUMEDEVOURINGESTPARTAKE OFGOBBLE (UP/DOWN)BOLT (DOWN)WOLF (DOWN)SWALLOWCHEWMUNCHCHOMPINFORMAL GUZZLENOSHPUT AWAYCHOW DOWN ONTUCK INTODEMOLISHDISPOSE OFPOLISH OFFPIG OUT ONSCARF (DOWN)HAVE A MEALCONSUME FOODFEEDSNACKBREAKFASTLUNCHDINEFEASTBANQUETINFORMAL GRAZENOSHDATED SUP
Taxonoymy

DRINKMEALGLUTTONY

CHEW

See also

FOOD

Kind Of

PUT

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general word is shí 食 which refers to any form of taking in food, but the word is probably primarily a noun meaning "food". Cf. 飯疏食 "dine on coarse food".

2. Gān 甘 is to enjoy a meal or to enjoy food on a given occasion.

3. Rú 茹 is to eat a routine meal in order to still one's hunger.

4. Fú 服 ingest or imbibe for a purpose, typical a medical purpose.

5. Dàn 啖 is to eat quickly oneself and dàn 啗 is to cause someone to swallow.

6. Fàn 飯 is to dine on some basic foodstuff, and the word is secondarily a noun meaning "foodstuff, staple food".

7. Cháng 嘗 is to eat something for the purpose of experiencing the taste of it, rather than for the purpose of filling one's stomach.

8. Bǎo 飽 refers specifically to eating enough or having eaten enough and is most current as an intransitive verb.

9. Yàn 厭 / 饜 refers to eating more than enough is mostly used transitively.

10. Cān 餐 is a formal or poetic word referring to the eating of a desirable meal.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

FOOD 6. 進食。

食,通稱。

喫,唐宋後口語中的通稱。

啖,自己吃。

啗,使人吃。

茹,吃粗劣食物。

吞,進食不嚼,側重包容。

咽,進食而下肚,側重在下。

Modern Chinese Criteria

用餐

就餐

進餐

吃飯

進食

用飯

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 5.11

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 517

EDERE alimentum solidum assumere. Qvod si fiat lente, dicitur Manducare, si avide rapaciter, Vorare; si lingva exserta, Lingere.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 314

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 108

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 333

SANBAITI 1987 中國文化史三百題 263-277

STAIGER 2003 Das grosse China-Lexikon 194

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 179ff

POIRIER 1991 Histoire des moeurs 1.1447

BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002 Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology

NUTRITION

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.228

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 107
  • vt[oN] : 47
  • vt(oN) : 13
  • nab : 7
  • vt+prep+N : 6
  • NPab : 4
  • vi : 3
  • vadV : 3
  • vtoN : 2
  • vtpostN{OBJ} : 2
  • vtoNm : 2
  • vadN : 2
  • VPt(oN) : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • VPi : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • vt(oNm) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 35
  • 說苑 : 19
  • 論語 : 18
  • 春秋左傳 : 17
  • 論衡 : 14
  • 禮記 : 12
  • 孟子 : 11
  • 賢愚經 : 10
  • 百喻經 : 9
  • 祖堂集 : 8
  • 荀子 : 7
  • 管子 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 毛詩 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 楚辭 : 3
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 史記 : 1

Words

   shí OC: ɢljɯɡ MC: ʑɨk 97 Attributions

The general word is shí 食 which refers to any form of taking in food, but the word is probably primarily a noun meaning "food". Cf. 飯疏食 "dine on coarse food".

  • nabacteating regime, diet; food consumption
  • nabactact of eating, meal; time of a meal
  • vadNfor eating 食器 "eating utensils"
  • vt(oN)eat the contextually determinate substance
  • vt(oNm)feed on the contextually determinate kind of substances Nm
  • vt[oN]eat food, eat a meal; have a meal
  • vtoNeat; feed on; live on
  • vtoNpassivebe eaten; be eaten up
  • vtoNsubj=nonhumanfeed on, eat (of animals); live on
  • vtoNmdurativefeed on
  • vtpostN{OBJ}feed regularly on N
  • vt+prep+Nfigurativefeed on, live by
  • vt[oN]inchoativestart eating
  • vt(oN)start eating the food/meal offered
  • vtoNperfectiveeat up
  • vt(oN)partlyeat any of
  • vtoNimperativeeat N!
   fàn OC: bonʔ MC: bi̯ɐn 12 Attributions

Fàn 飯 is to dine on some basic foodstuff, and the word is secondarily a noun meaning "foodstuff, staple food".

  • nmeal, basic meal
  • DELETEeat a meal
  • vt[oN]eat a meal; eat one's meals
  • vt+prep+Neat from
  • vtoNLIJI: dine on (certain dishes); eat from
   bǎo OC: pruuʔ MC: pɣɛu 12 Attributions

Bǎo 飽 refers specifically to eating enough or having eaten enough and is most current as an intransitive verb.

  • nabstative(state of) saturation, surfeit
  • vadV(eat) to one's heart's content
  • vt[oN]eat to one's heart's content; eat enough
   cān OC: tshaan MC: tshɑn 9 Attributions

Cān 餐 is a formal or poetic word referring to the eating of a desirable meal.

  • vt[oN]SHI: have a meal
  • vtoNeat; eat from
  • vtoNcausativecause someone to eat a regular meal> treat to a regular meal
   tūn OC: lʰɯɯn MC: thən 6 Attributions
  • vtoNeat raw, eat uncooked
   chī OC: kheeɡ MC: khek 6 Attributions
  • vtoNpost-Han: eat noisilyneutrally: to eat
   wèi OC: mɯds MC: mɨi 5 Attributions
  • vtoNget to savour, taste, appreciate the eating of 味甘味
  • vtoNfigurativetest and "taste"
嘗 / 嘗甞   cháng OC: djaŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ  OC:  MC:  5 Attributions

Cháng 嘗 is to eat something for the purpose of experiencing the taste of it, rather than for the purpose of filling one's stomach. Cháng 嘗 is to eat something for the purpose of experiencing the taste of it, rather than for the purpose of filling one's stomach.

  • vtoNTASTE> have as food, have to eat, take as food
  • vtoNmedicaltake as medicine
  • vtoNpassivebe tasted
   fú OC: bɯɡ MC: buk 4 Attributions

Fú 服 ingest or imbibe for a purpose, typical a medical purpose.

  • vt(oN)eat the contextually determinate N
  • vtoNeat or imbibe for a purpose
  • vtoNiussivemake the contextually determinate PIVOT eat N
   gān OC: kaam MC: kɑm 4 Attributions

Gān 甘 is to enjoy a meal or to enjoy food on a given occasion.

  • vt[oN]eat well
  • vtoNsavour, appreciate gastronomically
   rú OC: nja MC: ȵi̯ɤ 4 Attributions

Rú 茹 is to eat a routine meal in order to still one's hunger.

  • vtoNSHI 260: take in, eat (typically something undistinguished)
飲食   yǐn shí OC: qrɯmʔ ɢljɯɡ MC: ʔim ʑɨk 4 Attributions
  • NPabactdrinking and eating; consumption of drink and food
  • VPadNaiming for eating and drinking
  • VPitake a meal; eat and drink
   hán OC: ɡlɯɯm MC: ɦəm 3 Attributions
  • vtoNeat/drink
  • vtoNfigurativeimbibe (mysteries etc)
   dàn OC: ɡ-laamʔ MC: dɑm 3 Attributions

Dàn 啖 is to eat quickly oneself and dàn 啗 is to cause someone to swallow.

  • vtoNeat
   dàn OC: ɡ-laamʔ MC: dɑm 3 Attributions
  • vtoNput in one's mouth so as to eat; gulp down
   bū OC: paa MC: puo̝ 3 Attributions
  • vt[oN](of human subjects) eat a meal, have something (not necessarily anything distinguished) to eat, get something to eat, fill one's stomach
  • vtoNeat; fill one's stomach with
   chuài OC: skhroods MC: ʈʂhɣɛi 2 Attributions
  • vtoNeat greedily from
   yù OC: ŋas MC: ŋi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • vadNpassivewhat is not eaten (on formal occasions)
  • vt(oN)eat the contextually determinate thing (on formal occasions)
   ěr OC: mljɯs MC: ȵɨ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNtake (unusual things, medicines etc.) as food
  • vtoNcausativecause somebody to eat something; to feed somebody with something
   yàn OC: qems MC: ʔiɛm 2 Attributions
  • vadVto one's heart's content
食啖   shí dàn OC: ɢljɯɡ ɡ-laamʔ MC: ʑɨk dɑm 2 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)omeat (a contextually determinate N)
  • VPtoNeat
食飲   shí yǐn OC: ɢljɯɡ qrɯmʔ MC: ʑɨk ʔim 2 Attributions
  • NPabactnutrition, eating and drinking
   jìn  MC: dzinX  OC: dzinʔ  2 Attributions
  • vtoNeat up
  • vt(oN)eat up the contextually determinate object
   jì OC: dziils MC: dzei 1 Attribution
  • vtoNtake into one's mouth in order to eat
   yòng OC: k-loŋs MC: ji̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • vt(oN)polite: eat the contextually determinate edible thing N
   shí OC: qhljɯɡ MC: ɕɨk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNget to eat or drink
餉 / 饟   xiǎng OC: qhjaŋs MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ shàng OC: hnjaŋs MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • viget a proper meal, get to eat properly; get the best pieces of food
   zhuàn OC: sɡrons MC: ɖʐiɛn 1 Attribution
  • nrepast
  • viacteat lavishly, eat one's fill
  • vtoNenjoy the eating of (a meal, food and drink)
   xiǎng OC: qhaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution

Xiǎng 饗 refers to enjoying a festive meal, or in a transferred sense enjoying anything else in the way one might enjoy a festive meal. (NB: This is a different word and certainly not a variant character for xiǎng 享.)

  • vt[oN]eat a good meal
  • vtoNeat with enjoyment
啖食   dàn shí OC: ɡ-laamʔ ɢljɯɡ MC: dɑm ʑɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNeat
捉食   zhuō shí OC: tsrooɡ ɢljɯɡ MC: ʈʂɣɔk ʑɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)resultativecatch so as to eat
   niè MC: -- OC: -- 1 Attribution
  • vtoNgnaw at
   sūn MC: swon OC: squun 1 Attribution
  • vieat breakfast
   cān MC: -- OC: -- 1 Attribution
  • vtoNeat from (a vessel) (XUN, for 餐, contested)
厭 / 饜   yàn OC: qems MC: ʔiɛm yàn OC: qems MC: ʔiɛm 0 Attributions

Yàn 厭/饜 refers to eating more than enough is mostly used transitively. Yàn 厭/饜 refers to eating more than enough is mostly used transitively.

  • vtoNindulge oneself in; eat more of than is right; more than satisfy one's desires for eating and drinking to the full
  • nsurfeit; gluttonously
   jǔ OC: sɡaʔ MC: dzi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • viacttaste by chewing and keeping in the mouth
   dàn OC: ɡ-laamʔ MC: dɑm 0 Attributions

Dàn 啖 is to eat quickly oneself and dàn 啗 is to cause someone to swallow.

  • vtoNeat (GUOYU)
   jiáo OC: dzewɡ MC: dzi̯ɐk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNchew and eat
   yáo OC: ɡraaw MC: ɦɣɛu 0 Attributions
  • viacthave a meal including meat
   shì OC: lʰɯɡs MC: ɕɨ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNtry the taste of; taste
   niè OC: ŋɡeed MC: ŋet 0 Attributions
  • vtoNeat
食盡   shí jìn OC: ɢljɯɡ dzinʔ MC: ʑɨk dzin 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativeeat up
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNgnaw at
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vieat breakfast
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNeat up

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: