Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for meat as something edible is ròu 肉.

2. Xīng 腥 refers to raw meat.

3. Niú 牛 is sometimes used to refer to beef.

4. Yáng 羊 is sometimes used to refer to mutton.



FOOD 39.



脯,切成薄片、加鹽製成的乾肉,作酒餚。漢以後,主要稱 “ 脯 ” ,脯賅脩。除了豬肉,其他家禽、魚類、果類均可作脯。

FOOD 40.


胾,小塊肉。 “[U+4411]” ,小片肉。



FOOD 41.

胙,祭肉通稱。脤,古代帝王祭祀社稷時的生肉。膰,祭祀時烤熟之肉。膴,祭祀用的去骨大片乾; 幹肉。


Modern Chinese Criteria

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 5.61

  • 論衡同義詞研究 ( LUNHENG TONGYI 2004) p. 62

  • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 4.1871

  • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 988


    1. WL claims that ro4u 肉 refers to the flesh of animals, while ji1 肌 refers to the flesh of men. This is a misunderstanding. Re2n ro4u 人肉 is common in the literature. The salient feature in ro4u 肉 is not whose flesh it is, but whether this flesh is regarded under the aspect of edibility: 子肉也。我肉也。 is a famous statement by people who are about to eat each other. WL quotes Dua4n Yu4ca2i: 人曰肌,鳥獸曰肉, but whereas he was on the right track, he has not got things straight. And WL's repeated emphatic statement: 漢以後“肉”也可用於人 is manifestly wrong.

    2. Ji1 肌 cannot be used for the meat of animals, but the word does get used to refer to the flesh of gourds and the like, and the word is also commonly used to refer to the skin only. The Tang reference for this usage in WL 989 is 1000 years too late.

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.368

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nm : 39
  • nadV : 6
  • NP : 4
  • NPab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 10
  • 呂氏春秋 : 7
  • 韓非子 : 7
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 禮記 : 6
  • 論語 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1


   ròu OC: njuɡ MC: ȵuk 26 Attributions

The current general word for meat as something edible is ròu 肉.

  • nadVobjectaiming for meat, having meat as an object
  • nmspecifically: flesh of animals or humans in so far as this is regarded as edible
  • nmhumanhuman flesh
  • nmadNconsisting of flesh
  • vtoNcausativeput meat on
   zhì OC: tjaɡ MC: tɕiɛk 5 Attributions
  • nmroasted meat
   xiáo OC: ɡraaw MC: ɦɣɛu 4 Attributions
  • nmmeat on the bone
芻豢   chú huàn MC: tsrhju hwaenH OC: tshro ɡroons 4 Attributions
  • NPdelicious meat of domestic animals (lit. fed on hey and grain)
   yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions

Yáng 羊 is sometimes used to refer to mutton.

  • nmmutton
   niú OC: ŋɯ MC: ŋɨu 2 Attributions

Niú 牛 is sometimes used to refer to beef.

  • nmbeef
   xīng OC: seeŋ MC: seŋ 2 Attributions

Xīng 腥 refers to raw meat.

  • nmraw meat
   zhì OC: deds MC: ɖiɛi 1 Attribution
  • nmpork
   fán OC: ban MC: bi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • nm(sacrificial) roasted meat
   pàn OC: phaans MC: phʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • nmflesh on the side of an animal, rib
肉味   ròu wèi OC: njuɡ mɯds MC: ȵuk mɨi 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturethe flavour of meat
   guì OC: kʷrads MC: kiɛi 0 Attributions
  • nmsacrificial meat
   jì OC: skeds MC: tsiɛi 0 Attributions
  • nmOBI: sacrificial meat [KT]
   kěn OC: khɯɯŋʔ MC: khəŋ 0 Attributions
  • nmmeat sticking to the bones (ZHUANG)
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • nmmeat on sides of spine ?? (LI)
   piǎo OC: phewʔ MC: phiɛu 0 Attributions
  • nmrib meat

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: