ACCUMULATE  積累

GATHER THINGS so as to CAUSE them THEREUPON TO REMAIN TOGETHER.
AMASSSTOCKPILEPILE UPHEAP UPSTORESTORE UPHOARDCUMULATEMULTIPLYACCRUE
Antonymy

SCATTER

Kind Of

GATHER

Old Chinese Criteria

[ABSTRACT/CONCRETE]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[LARGE-SCALE/SMALL-SCALE]

[LASTING/TRANSITORY]

1. The current general word for accumulating anything concrete or abstract is jī 積 (ant. sǎn 散 "be dispersed"), and the word focusses on the process of accumulation rather than on the result only.

[LARGE-SCALE], [LASTING]

2. Xù 畜 / 蓄 refers specifically to accumulation and continuous storage of things for the purpose of sustenance of life or the rearing of domestic animals.

[CONCRETE], [SMALL-SCALE] [TRANSITORY]

3. Chǔ 儲 refers to the accumulation and continuous storage of new articles of general use for the maintainance of life.

[CONCRETE!], [TRANSITORY]

4. Lěi 累 typically refers quite literally to the piling up of things into a heap or a heap-like structure, but the word does occasionally have generalised usages referring to accumulation of any kind, abstract or concrete.

[CONCRETE!], [LASTING]

5. Wěi 委 (ant.* qì 棄 "throw away") refers to small-scale accumulation of concrete objects.

[CONCRETE], [SMALL-SCALE]

Modern Chinese Criteria

積累 is the currect modern word for accumulating.

累積 is a current word with the same general meaning.

積存 refers to accumulating things for the keeping.

積聚 focussing on the collecting without special focus on one place.

聚積 focussing on the collecting in one place.

積攢 jīzǎn refers to accumulating as a mode of accumulating and saving, and the word is marginal in the group.

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. Some words can take abstract objects (xù 畜, jī 積, occasionally chǔ 儲 ), others are basically limited to concrete objects (jí 集, jí 輯, wěi 委, zhì 庤 ).

2. The collocation of things may be typically on a large scale (jī 積, chù 畜 ), or on a small scale (wěi 委, zhì 庤 ), or indifferently on any scale (jí 集, jí 輯 ).

3. The purpose of the collocation of things may be constant and current use (chù 畜 ), or it may typically be the creation of a large permanent collection of amassed stuff (jī 積 ), or it may be unspecified (jí 集, jí 輯 ).

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

HEAP

acervus is an orderly homogeneous heap, often in layers.

congeries is a disorderly homogeneous heap, unstructured.

strues is a structured pile built up for a certain purpose.

cumulus can refer specifically to the top of a heap which gives it its desired height.

LW

aggero, aggerere, aggessi, aggestus V 3 1 TRANS [XXXBO]

heap/cover up over, pile/build up, erect; accumulate; intensify, exaggerate;

adgero, adgerere, adgessi, adgestus V 3 1 TRANS [XXXBO]

heap/cover up over, pile/build up, erect; accumulate; intensify, exaggerate;

conglobo, conglobare, conglobavi, conglobatus V 1 1 [XXXBO]

form/make into a ball; roll up; accumulate; crowd/press/mass together; clot;

adcumulo, adcumulare, adcumulavi, adcumulatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXCO]

accumulate, heap/pile up/soil; add by exaggeration; add, increase, enhance;

accumulo, accumulare, accumulavi, accumulatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXCO]

accumulate, heap/pile up/soil; add by exaggeration; add, increase, enhance;

*

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 155

積,儲,畜/蓄

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 39

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 1.127

AKKUMULATIONSTHEORIE

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 941

積,績

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 946

累,纍,絫

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 208

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.21.17

ACCUMULER.AMASSER

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 44
  • n : 9
  • vadN : 9
  • NPm : 8
  • v[adN] : 7
  • vt[oN] : 6
  • VPtoN : 4
  • vi : 4
  • VPt(oN) : 3
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • vt0oN : 1
  • VPt[oN] : 1
  • nm : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 21
  • 荀子 : 13
  • 管子 : 10
  • 淮南子 : 9
  • 鹽鐵論 : 8
  • 春秋左傳 : 4
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 法集要頌經 : 4
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   jī OC: skleɡ MC: tsiɛk 41 Attributions

The current general word for accumulating anything concrete or abstract is jī 積 (ant. sǎn 散 "be dispersed"). [LARGE-SCALE], [LASTING]

  • v[adN]passive[WHAT IS ACCUMULATED>] collected supplies, stockpiles
  • vadNpassiveaccumulated
  • vadNN=placefilled out; full
  • vt[oN]engage in the accumulation of things
  • vt0oNpassivethere are accumulated, there are heaps of 積珍寶
  • vtoNcollect and amass, typically on a large scale
  • vtoNfigurativeaccumulate abstract things
  • vtoNfigurativeget (abstractly) accumulated (through repetitive practice)
  • vtoNmiddle voiceget accumulated; be accumulated
  • vt+prep+Nmiddleget accumulated at N, congregate at N
  • v[adN]passivethe whole consisting of "piled-up" partial aspects (XUN)
   chǔ OC: ɡ-la MC: ɖi̯ɤ 11 Attributions

Chǔ 儲 refers to the accumulation and continuous storage of new articles of general use for the maintainance of life. [CONCRETE!], [TRANSITORY]

  • nobject[WHAT IS ACCUMULATED>] reserve; stock-pile
  • vadNpassivecollected, assembled
  • viactto accumulate things; to store things
  • vtoNassemble, gather together for lasting storage; YTL: collect and store up (provisions, arms, horses etc)
   wěi OC: qrolʔ MC: ʔiɛ 10 Attributions

Wěi 委 (ant.* qì 棄 "throw away") refers to small-scale accumulation of concrete objects. [CONCRETE], [SMALL-SCALE]

  • naccululation (of grain); supply (of grain); public store of grain; grain in storage; reserve; surplussyn.group ?????
  • vadNaccumulated
  • viactpile up on a small scale; garner
  • vimiddle voiceget accumulated
  • vtoNpile up on a small scale
   lěi OC: rolʔ MC: liɛ 8 Attributions

Lěi 累 typically refers quite literally to the piling up of things into a heap or a heap-like structure, but the word does occasionally have generalised usages referring to accumulation of any kind, abstract or concrete. [CONCRETE!], [LASTING]

  • vadN(piled-up>) many; a pile of
  • vtoNpile up; assemble; accumulate; increase manyfold
蓄積   xù jī OC: qhluɡ skleɡ MC: huk tsiɛk 8 Attributions
  • NPmvarious stockpiles; accumulated resources of all kinds; the various accumulated resources
  • VPt[oN]accumulate things
畜 / 蓄   xù OC: qhluɡ MC: huk xù OC: qhluɡ MC: huk 6 Attributions

Xù 畜/蓄 refers specifically to accumulation and continuous storage of things for the purpose of sustenance of life or the rearing of domestic animals. [CONCRETE], [SMALL-SCALE] [TRANSITORY] Xù 畜/蓄 refers specifically to accumulation and continuous storage of things for the purpose of sustenance of life or the rearing of domestic animals. [CONCRETE], [SMALL-SCALE] [TRANSITORY]

  • vtoN(foster up>) amass (supplies); harbour and accumulate (resentment)
  • nmWHAT IS STORED UP> reserves, provisions
積聚   jī jù OC: skleɡ sɡoʔ MC: tsiɛk dzi̯o 3 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)accumulate the contextually determinate N
  • VPtoNaccumulate
   yùn OC: quns MC: ʔi̯un 2 Attributions
  • vtoNaccumulate; gather 蘊利生孽"accumulating gain creates misfortune"
聚集   jù jí OC: sɡoʔ sɡub MC: dzi̯o dzip 2 Attributions
  • NPmobjectaccumulated objects; things one has collected or accumulated
  • VPt(oN)assemble; constitute by bringing together
   fēng OC: poŋ MC: pi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • viactaccumulate earth> make a heap
   còu OC: skhoos MC: tshu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe accumulated
   zhǔ OC: taʔ MC: ti̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNaccumulate; heap; store
   jiū OC: ku MC: kɨu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNassemble; keep together GY: 可以鑑而鳩趙宗乎
湊集   còu jí OC: skhoos sɡub MC: tshu dzip 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe accumulated
累積   lěi jī OC: rolʔ skleɡ MC: liɛ tsiɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPiaccumulate things
聚蓄   jù xù OC: sɡoʔ qhluɡ MC: dzi̯o huk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativegather together so as to store up for later use
益積   yì jī  MC: 'jiek tsjeH  OC: qleɡ skleɡ  1 Attribution
  • VPtoNincreasingly accumulate
   dié OC: dɯɯb MC: dep 0 Attributions
  • vadNaccumulated > piled up
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
   lěi OC: ruulʔ MC: luo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vi.redREDUP: be piling up, be in a heap, on top of each other (typically of rocks)
積累   jī lěi OC: skleɡ rolʔ MC: tsiɛk liɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNfigurativeaccumulate
   jū OC: ka MC: ki̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNgather, accumulate; set aside (necessities of life etc)

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: