CULTIVATE  修養

Be DILIGENT TRYING to BASICALLY IMPROVE ONESELF.
Taxonoymy

BILDUNG

Antonymy

NEGLECT

See also

AGRICULTURE

Kind Of

DILIGENT

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general term for cultivating something or refining it is xiū 修 (from Han times onwards sometimes also miswritten as xiū 脩, ant.* màn 慢 "neglect the cultivation of").

2. Yǎng 養 refers specifically to the systematic cultivation of higher psychosomatic competence.

3. Lǐ 理 refers, occasionally, to a rather abstract way of cultivating a certain skill or technique.

Modern Chinese Criteria

修養

涵養

修身

修己

養氣

存養

存心養性

修身養性

卑以自牧

修習

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis 18.11.2003. CH

Old Chinese Contrasts

LEIBNIZ 6.4 P. 61: Ut Rhetores exercitia habent orationis et Grammatici exercitia styli, ita ego in pueris exercitia ingenii institui desidero.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

EXERCITATIO

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 30

1. The well-defined one-sidedness of the confusion is very interesting: I have never seen xiu1 修 written for an intended xiu1 脩 "meat".

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 173

BARCK 2010 Ästhetische Grundbegriffe 3.510

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 152
  • VPtoN : 25
  • VPi : 23
  • NPab : 11
  • nab : 6
  • vtoN : 5
  • vadN : 3
  • vttoN1. prep N2 : 2
  • v[adN] : 2
  • VPt(oN) : 2
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • VPt+V[0] : 1
  • vi : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • NPab.post-N : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 百喻經 : 25
  • 韓非子 : 23
  • 禮記 : 21
  • 祖堂集 : 20
  • 荀子 : 19
  • 賢愚經 : 14
  • 六祖壇經 : 11
  • 春秋左傳 : 10
  • 論衡 : 10
  • 論語 : 9
  • 莊子 : 8
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 7
  • 孟子 : 7
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 史記 : 4
  • 法言 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 老子 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1

Words

修 / 脩   xiū OC: sqlɯw MC: sɨu xiū OC: sqlɯw MC: sɨu 145 Attributions

The current general term for cultivating something or refining it is xiū 修 (from Han times onwards sometimes also miswritten as xiū 脩, ant.* màn 慢 "neglect the cultivation of"). The current general term for cultivating something or refining it is xiū 修 (from Han times onwards sometimes also miswritten as xiū 脩, ant.* màn 慢 "neglect the cultivation of").

  • vtoNcultivate (one's person, the ancients etc); apply oneself to; train and exercise (troops); occasionally also with negative objects: LH 2 修詐 "cultivate fraudulence"
  • vtoNpassivebe well cultivated
  • vadNcultivated
  • v[adN]pluralthe cultivated
  • nabactpersonal cultivation
  • vtoNpsychcultivate (oneself) 自修
  • vtoNpsychcultivate (oneself) 修己
  • vtoNreflexive.身cultivate (one's own person)
  • vt+prep+Ncultivate N (Nuance difference with prep-less construction?)
  • vt(oN)cultivate the contextually determinate N
  • vt[oN]cultivate [oneself]
  • DELETEN=human
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe well cultivated
修行   xiū xíng OC: sqlɯw ɢraaŋ MC: sɨu ɦɣaŋ 32 Attributions
  • NPab.post-Ncultivation of
  • NPabactBUDDH: Buddhist practice
  • VPadNengage in Buddhist practice and cultivation
  • VPiactBUDDH: to engage in Buddhist practice
  • VPt(oN)BUDDH: put the contextually determinate N into cultivated practice
  • VPtoNcultivate
  • VPicultivate one's behaviour
   yǎng OC: laŋʔ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 12 Attributions

Yǎng 養 refers specifically to the systematic cultivation of higher psychosomatic competence.

  • vtoNcultivate (a mentality, connections etc)
自愛   zì ài  MC: dzijH 'ojH OC: sblids qɯɯds 6 Attributions
  • VPtoNreflexive.自psychological: take good personal and moral care of oneself> cultivate oneself
苦行   kǔ xíng OC: khaaʔ ɢraaŋ MC: khuo̝ ɦɣaŋ 5 Attributions
  • NPabactBUDDH: cultivation of ascetic practices
  • VPiactBUDDH: to engage in ascetic practices, practice hardship (self-inflicted suffering in order to gain liberation; in the Buddhist context often used negatively since it can refer to excessive ascetic practices which do not conform to the 'Middle-way'); skr. dūkara-caryā; dhuta; vrata-tapa (see also toútuó 頭陀)
   chí OC: ɡrlɯ MC: ɖɨ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNpersevere in and cultivate
   liàn OC: ɡ-reens MC: len 2 Attributions
  • viactcultivate; practice
  • vtoNcultivate properly
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe properly cultivated
修學   xiū xué OC: sqlɯw ɡruuɡ MC: sɨu ɦɣɔk 2 Attributions
  • NPabactcultivation
  • VPiactengage in proper spiritual self-cultivation
  • VPtoNcultivate spiritually
修心   xiū xīn OC: sqlɯw slɯm MC: sɨu sim 2 Attributions
  • VPiactto engage in the cultivation of the mind, engage in spiritual practice
修習   xiū xí OC: sqlɯw sɢlɯb MC: sɨu zip 2 Attributions
  • VPiengage in spiritual cultivation
  • VPtoNcultivate
勤修   qín xiū OC: ɡlɯn sqlɯw MC: gɨn sɨu 2 Attributions
  • VPiactcultivate Buddhist practice
  • VPtoNcultivate with great effort
奉持   fèng chí OC: boŋʔ ɡrlɯ MC: bi̯oŋ ɖɨ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNmaintain the cultivating practice of
成身   chéng shēn OC: djeŋ qhjin MC: dʑiɛŋ ɕin 2 Attributions
  • VPiactcultivate to perfection one's own personality/character> perfect one's person
   mào OC: moos MC: mu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcultivate diligently
   bào OC: buuʔ MC: bɑu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcultivate as basically important (the law)
   lǐ OC: ɡ-rɯʔ MC: lɨ 1 Attribution

Lǐ 理 refers, occasionally, to a rather abstract way of cultivating a certain skill or technique.

  • vtoNto cultivate and sort out properly, to practise systematically (a certain Way)
  • vtoNpassivebe properly sorted out and cultivated
   xù OC: qhluɡ MC: huk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNmore generally: figurative: foster (virtues etc)
   gēng OC: kreeŋ MC: kɣɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfigurativecultivate
   jìn OC: tsins MC: tsin 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcultivate
供養   gòng yǎng OC: koŋs laŋʔ MC: ki̯oŋ ji̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcultivate
保護   bǎo hù OC: puuʔ ɢʷaaɡs MC: pɑu ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+V[0]cultivate as a tradition to V
  • VPtoNcultivate as a tradition to be preserved
修奉   xiū fèng OC: sqlɯw boŋʔ MC: sɨu bi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcultivate
修敬   xiū jìng OC: sqlɯw kreŋs MC: sɨu kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcultivate so as to show respect for
修設   xiū shè OC: sqlɯw qhjed MC: sɨu ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNachieve through cultivation
修身   xiū shēn OC: sqlɯw qhjin MC: sɨu ɕin 1 Attribution
  • VPiactcultivate one's person
心行   xīn xíng OC: slɯm ɢraaŋ MC: sim ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactBUDDH: functional sphere of the mind > mental pratice (of a Bodhisattva)
難行   nán xíng OC: mɢlaan ɢraaŋ MC: nɑn ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabacthard practice, cultivation of austerity
養生   yǎng shēng OC: laŋʔ sraaŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactnourishment of life
十二頭陀   shí èr tóu tuó OC: ɡjub njis doo laal MC: dʑip ȵi du dɑ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactBUDDH: the twelve kinds of practices for removing afflictions (such as the desire after food, fine clothing, sleep, etc.) (see also 頭陀)
   néng OC: nɯɯŋ MC: nəŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcause to become capable (XUN); cultivate the talents of; treat well
脩身   xiū shēn MC: sjuw syin OC: sqlɯw qhjin 1 Attribution
  • nabcultivation of one's personality
   yí MC: yi OC: k-lɯ 1 Attribution
  • vttoN1. prep N2cultivate N1 (by drawing spiritual sustenance) from N2
   yí MC: yi OC: k-lɯ 1 Attribution
  • vttoN1. prep N2cultivate N1 (by drawing spiritual sustenance) from N2
   fù OC: pos MC: pi̯o 0 Attributions
  • vtoNentrust oneself to> devote oneself to, cultivate
勤行   qín xíng OC: ɡlɯn ɢraaŋ MC: gɨn ɦɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPiactengage in cultivated practice
立行   lì xíng OC: ɡ-rub ɢraaŋs MC: lip ɦɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPicultivate a proper conduct of life
進求   jìn qiú OC: tsins ɡu MC: tsin gɨu 0 Attributions
  • VPiactcultivate onself so as to seek spiritual progress
養性   yǎng xìng OC: laŋʔ seŋs MC: ji̯ɐŋ siɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPiactcultivate one's person (= 養生???—)
   zhǎng OC: krlaŋʔ MC: ʈi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcultivate as a virtue 長儉 "cultivate frugality"
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vttoN1. prep N2cultivate N1 (by drawing spiritual sustenance) from N2

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: