BEAST  禽獸

BIG WILD VERTEBRATE.
CREATURE
Old Chinese Criteria

[GENERAL]

[SPECIFIC]

Wild animals are generally mentioned in the context of hunting or capturing animals, and also in connection with their use in the culinary arts as well as in the production of utensils of all kinds. Their wild nature is standardly contrasted with humane or civilised domesticity.

1. Qín shòu 禽獸 is the current general word for non-domestic animals which often but not always includes birds of a certain size, but the term which includes all manner of fowl more explicitly is the also current niǎo shòu 鳥獸. See ANIMAL

[GENERAL]

2. Qín 禽 is sometimes used to refer quite generally to non-tame animals, especially in so far as these may be caught alive and with a net, but the word also refers specifically to wild birds. The word refers to smaller beasts than shòu 獸.

[SPECIFIC]

3. Shòu 獸 tends to refer to dangerous mammals above a certain size that are typically imagined as running (zǒu shòu 走獸 ), and sometimes as liable to bite..

[SPECIFIC]

4. Yě shòu 野獸 focusses on the habitat of wild animals far from human habitation, in the open countryside.

5. Máo 毛 and máo wù 毛物 refer generally to animals with feathers or fur, birds and beasts.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

ANIMALS 1:

獸,偏重指較大的哺乳動物;漢以前也作鳥獸泛稱。

禽,偏重指鳥類,作鳥獸泛稱超過 “ 獸 ” 。

鳥,飛禽的通稱;方言用法也可指獸類。

毛,主要指祭祀用的禽畜,也是方言用法。

毛物,泛指鳥獸。

Modern Chinese Criteria

禽獸

畜生

鳥獸

飛走

野獸

飛禽走獸

走獸

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 3.11

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 481

248. Etymolog. lib. XII, cap. 2.

-- Naturali. Ex Serv., ad ill. I Aen.: Pinguisque ferinae, et in Etym.

]

248. Inter Feras et bestias. Omnis bestia fera, non omnis fera bestia. Bestiae namque sunt, quae morsu, vel unguibus saeviunt, ut pardi, leones, tigrides, a vastando dictae. Ferae autem etiam illae sunt quae etsi non [ Al., a vi quae] saeviunt, tamen silvestres sunt; dictae [col. 36B] autem ferae, quod et naturali utantur libertate, et desiderio suo ferantur.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 45

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 57

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 199

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 335ff

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

belua 'beast' [f. a] (Naev.+; var. bellua in some mss.)

Derivatives: beluatus 'provided with beasts' (P1.+), belutus [adj.] Tike a beast'

(Paul, ex F.).

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 182

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nm : 30
  • NP : 23
  • nadV : 5
  • NP{PRED} : 4
  • NP{vadN} : 3
  • n : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • NPadV : 1
  • NPadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 10
  • 春秋左傳 : 9
  • 孟子 : 9
  • 管子 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 荀子 : 4
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1

Words

   shòu OC: qjus MC: ɕɨu 32 Attributions

Shòu 獸 tends to refer to dangerous mammals above a certain size that are typically imagined as running (zǒu shòu 走獸), and sometimes as liable to bite.

  • nadVanalogy(treat, raise) as animal; (live) like a beast
  • nmcollectivegenerally: four-legged animal of a certain size which are liable to run away when hunted; 百獸"all manner of wild animals"; NB: one may also rear wild animals in parks 養獸
禽獸   qín shòu OC: ɡrɯm qjus MC: gim ɕɨu 17 Attributions

1. Qín shòu 禽獸 is the current general word for non-domestic animals which often but not always includes birds of a certain size, but the term which includes all manner of fowl more explicitly is the also current niǎo shòu 鳥獸. See ANIMAL

  • NPnonreferentialwild animals generally (not necessarily including both birds and beasts) 禽獸之皮
  • NPadVlike wild beasts
  • VPiactbehave like a wild beast
  • NP{PRED}be wild beasts; be a wild beast
虎狼   hǔ láng OC: qhlaaʔ ɡ-raaŋ MC: huo̝ lɑŋ 4 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentiala ferocious animal
  • NPadNbestial, ferocious
  • NP{PRED}figurativebe (like) wild beasts
豺狼   chái láng OC: sɡrɯɯ ɡ-raaŋ MC: ɖʐɣɛi lɑŋ 4 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialwild beasts
  • NPfigurativepredicative "be wild beasts"
   qín OC: ɡrɯm MC: gim 3 Attributions

Qín 禽 is sometimes used to refer quite generally to wild non-tame animals, especially in so far as these may be caught alive and with a net, but the word also refers specifically to wild birds. The word refers to smaller beasts than shòu 獸.

  • nmcollectivefour-legged animal that is hunted, smaller than shòu 獸
走獸   zǒu shòu OC: tsooʔ qjus MC: tsu ɕɨu 3 Attributions
  • NP{vadN}nonreferentialquadrupeds; beasts
野獸   yě shòu OC: laʔ qjus MC: jɣɛ ɕɨu 2 Attributions

Yě shòu 野獸 focusses on the habitat of wild animals far from human habitation.

  • NPnonreferentialanimals living in the wild; wild animals
野干   yě gān OC: laʔ kaan MC: jɣɛ kɑn 1 Attribution
  • NPfox-like or wolf-like animal???
   jué MC: kjwot OC: kod 1 Attribution
  • nmythical beast living in the north of China
巨虛   jù xū MC: gjoX -- OC: ɡaʔ -- 1 Attribution
  • NPmythical beast thought to live in the north of China
蛩蛩   qióng qióng MC: gjowng gjowng OC: ɡoŋ ɡoŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPmythical beast supposed to live in the north
虎兕   hǔ sì OC: qhlaaʔ ziʔ MC: huo̝ zi 0 Attributions
  • NPpluraltigers and rhinoes
鳥獸   niǎo shòu OC: ntɯɯwʔ qjus MC: teu ɕɨu 0 Attributions

1. Qín shòu 禽獸 is the current general word for non-domestic animals which often but not always includes birds of a certain size, but the term which includes all manner of fowl more explicitly is the also current niǎo shòu 鳥獸. See ANIMAL

  • NPnonreferentialwild beasts
鹿豕   lù shǐ OC: b-rooɡ qhjeʔ MC: luk ɕiɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialdeer and wild boar; beasts like deer and wild boar

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: