BREATHE  呼吸

DISPLACE AIR so as to FILL the LUNGS with AIR AND THEN CAUSE the LUNGS TO BECOME EMPTY of that AIR in order to SURVIVE.
RESPIREDRAW BREATHPUFFPANTBLOWGASPWHEEZEHUFF
Taxonoymy

BLOWCOUGHSIGHYAWNPANT

See also

SIGH

Kind Of

DISPLACE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current standard words for breathing are xí 息 "breathe" and hū xī 呼吸 "breathe out and in", and the latter word refers also more generally to taking in things liquids through the mouth, ant. tǔ 吐 "spit out".

2. Chuī 吹 refers to the blowing out of breath either as part of heavy breathing or e.g. in the playing of music. See BLOW.

3. Chuǎn 喘 refers to heavy panting, including breathing in and out, especially on the occasion of exhaustion or ill health. See PANT.

4. Xī 吸 refers specifically to breathing in.

5. Pèn 噴 refers to the breathing out of air including the concurrent spitting out of liquids or indeed food in the mouth, proverbially rice.

6. Xū 噓 refers to breathing lightly, in and out, without making any noise, but the focus is often on the breathing out rather than in.

7. Kuì 喟 refers to the breathing out heavily and noisily, in the manner of an intense and demonstrative sigh. See SIGH.

8. Xǔ 煦 is to breathe (typically warm) air on something, but the word is much more common in the meaning "to shout".

9. Hū 呼 occasionally refers to the breathing out of air, also including certain light liquids, but the word standardly focusses on the considerable noise being produced on this occasion. See SHOUT.

NB: that most words for breathing refer primarily to breathing through the mouth and not through the nose.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

HUMAN BODY 5. 呼吸。

息,通稱。

喘,因勞累、炎熱、疾病等造成的急促呼吸。

嘽,專指由疲勞引起的急促呼吸。

哮,宋以後出現病名,指有聲響的急促呼吸。

Modern Chinese Criteria

呼吸 is the current modern word for breathing.

透氣 is a rather clinical term for drawing breath.

微吹 refers to breathing very lightly.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 4.51

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.233

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.916

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 17
  • vtoN : 7
  • nm : 4
  • NPab : 4
  • VPi : 3
  • vadN : 3
  • nab : 2
  • VPi : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • NP : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • vi.red:adN : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 論衡 : 13
  • 莊子 : 12
  • 淮南子 : 7
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 春秋左傳 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1

Words

   xī OC: sqlɯɡ MC: sɨk 13 Attributions

The current standard words for breathing are xí 息 "breathe" and hū xī 呼吸 "breathe out and in", and the latter word refers also more generally to taking in things liquids through the mouth, ant. tǔ 吐 "spit out".

  • nabactact of breather, breathing practice
  • nabfigurativegale, storm
  • nmbreath
  • vadNbreathing (and thus living)
  • viactbreathe
噓 / 噓   xù OC: qhlas MC: hi̯ɤ xū OC: qhla MC: hi̯ɤ 5 Attributions

Xū 噓 refers to breathing lightly, in and out, without making any noise, but the focus is often on the breathing out rather than in. Xū 噓 refers to breathing lightly, in and out, without making any noise, but the focus is often on the breathing out rather than in.

  • viactbreathe out slowly and noiselessly
  • vtoNbreathe on something
  • vi.red:adNonomatopoeia(sound of) heavy breathing; breathing noisily
呼吸   hū xī OC: qhaa hŋrɯb MC: huo̝ hip 5 Attributions
  • NPabactbreathing
  • VPiactbreathe in and out
   xī OC: hŋrɯb MC: hip 4 Attributions

Xī 吸 refers specifically to breathing in.

  • viactbreathe in
  • vtoNbreathe in
   qì OC: khɯds MC: khɨi 3 Attributions
  • nmbreath
   nù OC: naas MC: nuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • viactpuff oneself up by breathing heavily
  • vt(oN)causativecause the contextually determinate object to breathe
噓噏   xū xī MC: xip OC: qhla -- 2 Attributions
  • VPibreathe heavily in and out
  • VPtoNbreathe heavily in and out
   tǔ OC: kh-laaʔ MC: thuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNactbreathe out
   chuī OC: khjol MC: tɕhiɛ 1 Attribution

Chuī 吹 refers to the blowing out of breath either as part of heavy breathing or e.g. in the playing of music. See BLOW.

  • viactblow
   hū OC: qhaa MC: huo̝ 1 Attribution

Hū 呼 occasionally refers to the breathing out of air, also including certain light liquids, but the word standardly focusses on the considerable noise being produced on this occasion. See SHOUT.

  • viactbreathe out
呴喣咻 / 喣 / 咻    OC:  MC:  xǔ OC: qhoʔ MC: hi̯o xǔ OC: qhoʔ MC: hi̯o 1 Attribution

Xǔ 煦 is to breathe (typically warm) air on something, but the word is much more common in the meaning "to shout". Xǔ 煦 is to breathe (typically warm) air on something, but the word is much more common in the meaning "to shout". Xǔ 煦 is to breathe (typically warm) air on something, but the word is much more common in the meaning "to shout".

  • vtoNblow warm air on
   pēn OC: phɯɯn MC: phuo̝n 1 Attribution

Pēn 噴 refers to the breathing out of air including the concurrent spitting out of liquids or indeed food in the mouth, proverbially rice.

  • nabactsnorting (of a horse)
  • viactblow out
  • vtoNblow out
   xū OC: qhla MC: hi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • viactexhale; sigh; blow through the nose; sob; breathe out gently
   nà OC: nuub MC: nəp 1 Attribution
  • vtoNbreathe in
口氣   kǒu qì OC: khooʔ khɯds MC: khu khɨi 1 Attribution
  • NPbreath
喙息   huì xī OC: qhlods sqlɯɡ MC: hi̯ɐi sɨk 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]creatures that can breathe
數息   shuò xī OC: sqrooɡ sqlɯɡ MC: ʂɣɔk sɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPiactbreathe through the nose as a concentration technique (Baopuzi)
氣息   qì xī OC: khɯds sqlɯɡ MC: khɨi sɨk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactbreathing
   duān MC: twan OC: toon 1 Attribution
  • vi= 喘; pant, breathe heavily; (XUN allegedly: breathe slightly)
   shǔn OC: ɢljunʔ MC: ʑʷin 0 Attributions
  • vtoNsuck in (breath or liquids)[WRONG SYN GROUP][CA]
   hè OC: qhlaals MC: hɑ 0 Attributions
  • viactbreathe out as a show of anger
   kuì OC: khruds MC: khi 0 Attributions

Kuì 喟 refers to the breathing out heavily and noisily, in the manner of an intense and demonstrative sigh. See SIGH.

       pēn OC: phɯɯn MC: phuo̝n 0 Attributions
    • vtoNbreathe on???
       fēng OC: plum MC: puŋ 0 Attributions
    • vienjoy the air
    安般   ān bān OC: qaan paan MC: ʔɑn pʷɑn 0 Attributions
    • NPabmethodBUDDH: breathing technique involving quiet breathing

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: