CARRY  攜帶

DISPLACE something by WALKING WHILE HOLDING it.
CONVEYTRANSFERMOVETAKEBRINGBEARLUGTOTE
Taxonoymy

SMUGGLE

See also

LIFTPICK UP

Kind Of

DISPLACE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The commonest words refer to carrying things on one's back is fù 負, and the word is also common in figurative senses.

2. Dān 擔 refer to carrying things on a shoulder pole, but the word is still fairly rare in pre-Buddhist texts.

3. Hè 荷 is to carry over one's shoulder, sometimes on a pole.

4. Rén 任 refers to bearing something in one's arms.

5. Huái 懷 and bào 抱 can refer to carrying things in one's arms so as to protect them. See also EMBRACE

6. Dài 帶 is specifically to carry things along on one's belt, but the word is used more generally for "take along" also in ancient texts.

7. Pèi 佩 is to wear or carry very small objects on the waist. See WEAR

8. Qiè 挈 is to carry fairly small objects with one arm.

9. Gāng 扛 refers to lifting and possibly also carrying along heavy objects, typically as a feat. See primarily LIFT

NP: Káng 扛 "carry on one's shoulders" is a late colloquialism.

Modern Chinese Criteria

扛抬

抬扛

輿

負重

負荷

負載

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 10.61

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

CARRY

ferre is the general word referring to the transporting of something, by hand, from one place to another.

portare refers to the carrying of something either for oneself or for others.

bajulare refers to the carrying of something for others, as a porter.

BEAR

ferre refers to the supporting of a heavy burden.

tolerare refers to the bearing of some burden without sinking with it, and with a considerable use of strength.

sustinere refers to keeping something up without allowing it to sink down.

pati refers to bearing a burden or suffering something without trying to get rid of it. (Marginal to this group)

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 251

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 59

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1321

負,任,荷,擔

1. One might add to WL's description the main difference which is that fu4 負 often takes abstract objects, and re2n 任 became predominantly figurative, whereas he4 荷 and da4n 擔 are nearly always concrete. In fact, the inclusion of the marginal re2n 任 in this series is misleading, because the relevant meaning became obsolete at an early stage of the language.

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.417.376

PORTER.APPORTER.TRANSPORTER.EMPORTER

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.389

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 392/4/6

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 100
  • vt(oN.)adV : 5
  • VPtoN : 4
  • vt[oN] : 3
  • vtoN.adV : 3
  • vt(+N.)adV : 2
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • VPt[oN] : 2
  • vtt(oN1.)-vtoN2 : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
  • nab : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 26
  • 莊子 : 15
  • 賢愚經 : 12
  • 百喻經 : 12
  • 春秋左傳 : 8
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 論語 : 5
  • 孟子 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 祖堂集 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   fù OC: bɯʔ MC: bɨu 35 Attributions

The most common word to refer to carrying things on one's back is fù 負; the word is also common in figurative senses.

  • vt(+N.)adV(to V) with N on one's shoulders, carrying N on one's shoulders go ahead and V
  • vt[oN]carry things on one's shoulders
  • vtoNcarry on one's back; transferred: take upon oneself (official duties etc)
  • vtoNfigurativesupport the weight of; have on one's back; carry along (not necessarily on one's own back) 驢負 "carry on donkey-back"
  • vtoNpassivebe carried
  • vttoN1.+N2causativecause (N1) to carry (N2) on his shoulders
   chí OC: ɡrlɯ MC: ɖɨ 21 Attributions
  • vt(oN.)adVtaking along the contextually determinte object
  • vtoN.adV(carrying along)> with
  • vtoNhold and carry, take along; carry along; support with one's hands
  • vtoNimperativecarry!
   dài OC: taads MC: tɑi 9 Attributions

Dài 帶 is specifically to carry things along on one's belt, but the word is used more generally for "take along" also in ancient texts.

  • vtoNcarry (any object, sword) on belt; carry along, take along
  • vtoNfigurativecarry, have and show
  • vtt(oN1.)-vtoN2causativecause a conctextually determinate person N1 to carriy N2 on his/her belt
   dàn OC: k-laams MC: tɑm 9 Attributions

Dān 擔refer to carrying things on a shoulder pole, but the word is still fairly rare in pre-Buddhist texts. In the nominal usages, the lexeme is pronounced as dàn.

  • nabactthe carrying of burdens
  • vt(oN)carry a contextually determinate object on the shoulders
  • vtoNcarry on a shoulder pole; carry
   hè OC: ɡlaalʔ MC: ɦɑ 8 Attributions

Hè 荷 is to carry over one's shoulder, sometimes on a pole.

  • vtoNbear over one's shoulder (sometimes written 何 in early texts)
   huái OC: ɡruul MC: ɦɣɛi 7 Attributions

Huái 懷 and bào 抱 can refer to carrying things in one's arms so as to protect them. See also EMBRACE

  • vt(oN)carry the contextually determinate thing in one's breast-pocket
  • vtoNcarry in one's arms; carry along in one's breast-pocket; put in one's breast pocket
  • vtoNpassivebe carried along in one's breast-pocket
   qiè OC: kheed MC: khet 7 Attributions

Qiè 挈 is to carry fairly small objects with one arm.

  • vtoNMO: lift up and take along (Mount Taishan and cross a river with it); hold up (for the ruler to use); take and hold up as a standard; generally: hold
  • vtoNpassivebe lifted and carried around
   dài OC: k-lɯɯs MC: təi 5 Attributions
  • vt[oN]carry things on one's head
  • vtoNhold up with effort; carry on one's head (particularly of women)
  • vtoNfigurativecarry and support with one's head 戴皇天
  • vtoNderivedhave fixed on top
   rén OC: njɯm MC: ȵim 3 Attributions

Rén 任 refers to bearing something in one's arms.

  • vtoNbear in one's arms; be able to carry
  • vtoNfigurativecarry (as a beam "carries" a roof)
   bào OC: buuʔ MC: bɑu 3 Attributions

Huái 懷 and bào 抱 can refer to carrying things in one's arms so as to protect them. See also EMBRACE

  • vtoNcarry along in one's arms
   jiē OC: kad MC: ki̯ɐt 3 Attributions
  • vtoNlift up and carry
   zhuō OC: tsrooɡ MC: ʈʂɣɔk 2 Attributions
  • vt(oN)take the contextually determinate thing along carrying it in one's hands
  • vtoNpick up; pick up and take along in one's hands
   yú OC: k-la MC: ji̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcarry on the shoulder
   guǒ OC: kloolʔ MC: kʷɑ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcarry along in a bag or a sack
持去   chí qù OC: ɡrlɯ khas MC: ɖɨ khi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)carry off, take away
  • VPtoNresultativecarry off
負戴   fù dài OC: bɯʔ k-lɯɯs MC: bɨu təi 2 Attributions
  • VPt[oN]carry on backs and heads, carry heavy loads in general
   chā OC: skhrɯɯb MC: ʈʂhɣɛp 1 Attribution
  • vtoNto carry
   yù OC: - MC: ji̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcarry
擔向   dān xiàng OC: k-laam qhaŋs MC: tɑm hi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcarry to
擔負   dān fù OC: k-laam bɯʔ MC: tɑm bɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcarry on a carrying pole
懷負   huái fù  MC: hweaj bjuwX  OC: ɡruul bɯʔ  1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcarry in one's arms
   pèi OC: bɯɯs MC: buo̝i 0 Attributions

Pèi 佩 is to wear or carry very small objects on the waist. See WEAR

  • vtoNcarry on one's belt (a sword etc, close to "wear", but not quite the same)
   gāng OC: krooŋ MC: kɣɔŋ 0 Attributions

Gāng 扛 refers to lifting and possibly also carrying along heavy objects, typically as a feat. See primarily LIFT

       tiāo OC: kh-leew MC: theu 0 Attributions
    • vtoNpost-Han, SONG DYNASTY: carry on a shoulder pole
       gāng OC: kaaŋ MC: kɑŋ 0 Attributions
    • vtoNcarry on shoulder
       yǒng OC: qoŋʔ MC: ʔi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
    • vtoNcarry in one arm
       bèi OC: pɯɯɡs MC: puo̝i 0 Attributions
    • vtoNTANG: put on one's back; carry on one's back
       duò OC: daads MC: dɑ 0 Attributions
    • vtoNcarry on the back
       jī OC:  MC: tsei 0 Attributions
    • vtoNtake along, carry along, bring along
    搢紳   jìn shēn OC: tsins lʰin MC: tsin ɕin 0 Attributions
    • VPadNfor carrying (like a sword) hanging on one's broad ritual belt 漢 鄭司農 曰:"晉讀為搢紳之搢,謂插於紳帶之間,若帶劍也。"
    自隨   zì suí OC: sblids sɢlol MC: dzi ziɛ 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNtake along (DCD)
    舁去   yú qù OC: k-la khaʔ MC: ji̯ɤ khi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
    • VPt(oN)carry the contextually determinate thing N off
    荷負   hé fù OC: ɡlaal bɯʔ MC: ɦɑ bɨu 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNcarry

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: