APPROACH  接近

WALK so as to BECOME NEAR to something.
MOVE TOWARDCOME/GO TOWARDADVANCE TOWARDINCH TOWARDGO/COME/DRAW/MOVE NEARERGO/COME/DRAW/MOVE CLOSERNEARCLOSE INGAIN ON
Taxonoymy

REACH

Antonymy

LEAVE

See also

COME

Kind Of

WALK

Old Chinese Criteria

[DRAMATIC]/[UNDRAMATIC]

[ELEVATED/VULGAR]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE]

[LITERAL/TRANSFERRED]

1. The most current general word for approaching or getting close to anything is jìn 近 (ant. yuàn 遠 "remove oneself far from").

[GENERAL], [LITERAL!]

2. Jí 即 and jiù 就 (all ant. lí 離 "leave, move away from") refer neutrally to moving close to a certain place.

[GENERAL]

3. Bó 薄 and pò 迫 refers somewhat dramatically to moving (often precariously) close to something.

[DRAMATIC], [LITERAL]

4. Fù 附 is to move very close up indeed to something, often getting attached to it.

[HIGH-DEGREE], [LITERAL]

5. Qīn 親 (NB: shū 疏 is not used as an antonym for this meaning.) refers primarily to moving intimately close to something.

[ELEVATED], [TRANSFERRED!]

6. Lín 臨 is often used in ways characteristic of the dignified court style, but the word also commonly refers to getting close to a place or time in a natural course of events.

[ELEVATED!], [GENERAL]

Modern Chinese Criteria

接近

逼近

靠近

來臨

湊近

迫近

迫臨

靠近

鄰近

接近

臨近

挨近

貼近

將近

近乎

靠攏

湊攏

瀕臨

瀕於

臨到

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. The main distinction in this group is the degree of closeness of approach: Fù 附 is closest, bó 薄 is almost but not quite as close, and the emphasis is not on the movement as such but on the resulting intimate closeness.

2. Some words are often abstract in reference and take event objects (lín 臨 ), others are predominantly concrete (pò 迫 ); the other words may refer to concrete as well as abstract closeness.

3. Some words can have abstract time subjects (like mìng 命 "lifespan") by Han times (lín 臨 ), others always commonly take all sorts of abstract subjects (jìn 近 ), still others take only concrete physical subjects (jí 即 ).

4. Some words refer to physical proximity (jí 即, fù 附, pò 迫, jiù 就 ) others to psychological as well as physical proximity (qīn 親 ).

5. Some words refer to the process of approaching but do typically involve semantically the arrival at the destination (jí 即, jiù 就, lín 臨 ); other words typically describe a movement within the proximity region of the destination (qīn 親, jìn 近 ). jiang

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 10.56

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 225

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 74
  • vt(oN) : 5
  • vt+prep+N : 5
  • vt0oN.adS : 4
  • vtoN.+V : 2
  • VPt[oN] : 2
  • vtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 21
  • 韓非子 : 13
  • 荀子 : 8
  • 百喻經 : 7
  • 論語 : 6
  • 孟子 : 5
  • 法句經 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 記纂淵海 : 2
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 合陰陽釋文 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   lín OC: b-rɯm MC: lim 20 Attributions

Lín 臨 is often used in ways characteristic of the dignified court style, but the word also commonly refers to getting close to a place or time in a natural course of events. [ELEVATED!], [GENERAL]

  • vt+prep+Ngo close to, get close to; approach (and gaze down on)
  • vt0oN.adStemporalwhen it comes/came to the time N,...
  • vtoNmove (often downwards) towards, approach (and arrive at); be situated close to JIA YI, "Mourning Qu Yuan": 命臨沒 "When life is about to come to an end".
  • vtoNN=abstractapproach (a time, a situation etc)
  • vtoNfigurativespiritually: move close to in spirit
   jiù OC: dzuɡs MC: dzɨu 19 Attributions

Jí 即 and jiù 就 (all ant. lí 離 "leave, move away from") refer neutrally to moving close to a certain place. [GENERAL]

  • vt(oN)approach (to a contextually determinate object)
  • vtoN.+Vcoverb: approach somebody and V (ask, request, seek) > V (seek, request) (something) from N
  • vtoN.adVcoverbtowards
  • vtoNmove close to
  • vtoNfigurativemove close to (a fate one suffers) 就戮
   jìn OC: ɡɯns MC: gɨn 17 Attributions

The most current general word for approaching or getting close to anything is jìn 近 (ant. yuàn 遠 "remove oneself far from"). [GENERAL], [LITERAL!]

  • vt(oN)get anywhere near a contextually determinate object
  • vt+prep+Nget close to
  • vtoNcome close to
  • vtoNfigurativeverge towards, be inclined towards; cultivate the company of, cultivate close personal relations with
  • vtoNgradedcome closer and closer to
   jí OC: tsɯɡ MC: tsɨk 9 Attributions

Jí 即 and jiù 就 (all ant. lí 離 "leave, move away from") refer neutrally to moving close to a certain place. [GENERAL]

  • vtoNmove close to; join (the military forces) of
  • vtoNfigurativebecome politically close to; become culturally close to
   báo OC: baaɡ MC: bɑk 7 Attributions

Bó 薄 and pò 迫 refers somewhat dramatically to moving (often precariously) close to something. [DRAMATIC], [LITERAL]

  • vtoNchangeget close to; move in on; move in on aggressively so as to attack; bear down on
   fù OC: bos MC: bi̯o 5 Attributions

Fù 附 is to move very close up indeed to something, often getting attached to it. [HIGH-DEGREE], [LITERAL]

  • vtoNapproach, get extremely close to; attach oneself to, ingratiate oneself with
  • vtoNpassiveget attached
  • vt(oN)approach the contextually determinate N
   zhuó OC: k-laɡ MC: ʈi̯ɐk 3 Attributions
  • vtoNget close to, get attached to
   pò OC: praaɡ MC: pɣɛk 3 Attributions

Bó 薄 and pò 迫 refers somewhat dramatically to moving (often precariously) close to something. [DRAMATIC], [LITERAL]

  • vt(oN)approach with sudden force or acute urgency
  • vtoNpress in on, come threateningly close to
   fù OC: paɡs MC: pi̯o 2 Attributions
  • vtoNget close to; be close to
   dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 2 Attributions
  • vt0oN.adSwhen it came to the time of
  • vtoNapproch (a place, or a person from a direction)
  • vt0oN.adSwhen it comes to the subject/topic N
   ěr OC: mljelʔ MC: ȵiɛ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNpassivebe approached
   qīn OC: tshiŋ MC: tshin 1 Attribution

Qīn 親 (NB: shū 疏 is not used as an antonym for this meaning.) refers primarily to moving intimately close to something. [ELEVATED], [TRANSFERRED!]

  • vt(oN)associate closely with, approach so as to associate closely with
   yà OC: ŋɡraas MC: ŋɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • vt(oN)run along to a contextually determinate N
  • vtoNrun up towards[meet with][CA]
近促   jìn cù OC: ɡɯnʔ tshoɡ MC: gɨn tshi̯ok 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]come closer; be fast approaching one
近前   jìn qián OC: ɡɯnʔ dzeen MC: gɨn dzen 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]imperativecome close to me
   cù OC: tshoɡ MC: tshi̯ok 0 Attributions
  • vtoNabapproach 促坐 "go to one's seat"

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: