TEMPERATURE RESEMBLING that of ICE AND being the OPPOSITE of HOT.
Old Chinese Criteria
1. The standard current word referring to coldness is hán 寒 (ant. wēn 溫, rè 熱 "warm").
2. Lěng 冷 refers to anything fresh and cool rather than rè 熱 "unpleasantly hot".
3. Dòng 凍 describes a very high degree of coldness, typically below the freezing point of water.
4. Liáng 涼 (ant. wēn 溫 "lukewarm") describes a mild form of coldness, prototypically that of a cool breeze liáng fēng 涼風.
5. Qīng 清 (ant. rù 溽 "unpleasantly humid and warm") describes a mild, fresh coolness of climate rather than of liquids or solids.
Modern Chinese Criteria
rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH ／
frigere refers to anything that is cold.
algere refers to feeling unpleasantly cold.
algidus refers to an unpleasant chill.
alsus refers to refreshing coolness.
frigidus refers to a moderate degree of coldness.
gelidus refers to something being on the point of freezing.
1. It should be noted that ha2n 寒 is ubiquitous, whereas le3ng 冷 hardly ever occurs, and also lia2ng 涼 is not a current word, and the natural suspicion is that really ha2n 寒 did cover everything from very cold to cool, but in fact, the connotation of ha2n 寒 always seems to have been negative or unpleasant thus excluding the pleasant cool breeze lia2ng fe1ng 涼風 which does get mentioned a few times in the literature.
algeo 'to be cold, freeze' [v. II; pf. alsT} (P1.+)
Derivatives: algor [m.] 'cold' (P1.+), algus, -us 'id.' (P1.+), algidus 'cold' (Naev.+).
Attributions by syntactic funtion
Attributions by text
- 韓非子 : 9
- 呂氏春秋 : 7
- 論衡 : 7
- 管子 : 7
- 莊子 : 7
- 說苑 : 6
- 禮記 : 6
- 百喻經 : 6
- 春秋左傳 : 4
- 孟子 : 4
- 毛詩 : 3
- 荀子 : 2
- 鹽鐵論 : 2
- 史記 : 2
- 楚辭 : 2
- 文子 : 2
- 阮籍集四卷 : 1
- 論語 : 1
- 周易 : 1
- 淮南子 : 1
- 韓詩外傳 : 1
- 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
- 祖堂集 : 1
- 法句經 : 1
寒 hán OC: ɡaan MC: ɦɑn 53 Attributions
The standard current word referring to coldness is hán 寒 (ant. standardly shǔ 暑, but also wēn 溫, rè 熱 "warm").
- nabeventperiod of coldness, cold spell
- nabstativethe cold; state of coldness
- nadNcaused by coldness; originating from coldness
- vadSwhen it is cold; in winter
- vibe cold (of persons), go cold; fresh and chilly; be cold (as winter)
- visubjectivefeel cold
- vi0changeit turns cold
- vi0stativeit is cold
- vt+prep+Ngradedbe colder than N
- vtoNexpose to the cold
- v[adN]N=humpeople suffering from cold
- vtoNcause to be cold; cause to feel cold
- vifeel cold because one does not have enough clothes to keep oneself warm
涼 liáng OC: ɡ-raŋ MC: li̯ɐŋ 8 Attributions
Liáng 涼 (ant. wēn 溫 "lukewarm") describes a mild form of coldness, prototypically that of a cool breeze liáng fēng 涼風.
- nabfigurativerefreshing coldness; chill
- vadNrefreshingly cool; cold
- vicool as water (in summer); be cool (as spring)
- vtoNcausativecause it to be cool
冷 líng OC: ɡ-reeŋ MC: leŋ 7 Attributions
Lěng 冷 refers to anything fresh and cool rather than rè 熱 "unpleasantly hot".
- nabstativecoldness (of water/liquid)
- vifresh and cool
- vichangeturn cold; become colder; cool off
- vt(oN)causativemake the contextually determinate N cool
凍 dòng OC: tooŋs MC: tuŋ 6 Attributions
Dòng 凍 describes a very high degree of coldness, typically below the freezing point of water.
- vadNfreezing; very cold; frozen
- vifeel cold, freeze; suffer from the cold
- vtoNcausativeallow or cause to freeze
清 qīng OC: tsheŋ MC: tshiɛŋ 3 Attributions
Qīng 清 (ant. rù 溽 "unpleasantly humid and warm") describes a mild, fresh coolness of climate rather than of liquids or solids.
- nabstativestate of chilliness, chill; fresh coolness
- vifresh and cool
死 sǐ OC: pliʔ MC: si 2 Attributions
- vadNdead and cold (ashes)
冽 liè OC: b-red MC: liɛt 1 Attribution
- viSHI: biting cold as wind and waves
沍 OC: MC: 1 Attribution
- vichangebecome very cold> freeze
湝 xié OC: ɡriid MC: ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
寒凍 hán dòng OC: ɡaan tooŋs MC: ɦɑn tuŋ 1 Attribution
- VPi0resultativeit was very cold
清涼 qīng liáng OC: tsheŋ ɡ-raŋ MC: tshiɛŋ li̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
- NPfigurativeBUDDH: coolness (often used as description of nirvāṇa 涅槃); SANSKRIT śītī-bhāva, PALI sīti-bhāva
冱 hù OC: ɢaas MC: ɦuo̝ 0 Attributions
- virare: freeze
凊 qìng OC: tsheŋs MC: tshiɛŋ 0 Attributions
- vtoNcausativeto make cold; to cool
凌 líng OC: b-rɯŋ MC: lɨŋ 0 Attributions
- npost-Han: ice as substance used for keeping foodstuff cold or for consumption
淒 / 凄 qī OC: MC: tshei qī OC: shiil MC: tshei 0 Attributions
- vicool and chilly; cold
- vadNcool and chilly; cold
凔 / 滄 / 滄 / 滄 cāng OC: skhaaŋ MC: tshɑŋ cāng OC: skhaaŋ MC: tshɑŋ chuàng OC: skhraŋs MC: ʈʂhi̯ɐŋ cāng OC: skhaaŋ MC: tshɑŋ 0 Attributions
- vifresh and chilly
凜 lǐn OC: b-rɯmʔ MC: lim 0 Attributions
- vimedical, SUWEN: of the cold category; CC: severely cold, biting cold
凝 níng OC: ŋɡɯŋ MC: ŋɨŋ 0 Attributions
喈 jiē OC: kriid MC: kɣɛi 0 Attributions
- vibe chilly
栗 lì OC: b-riɡ MC: lit 0 Attributions
- viK: bitterly cold??
泠 líng OC: ɡ-reeŋ MC: leŋ 0 Attributions
- vichilly??? mistake for 冷
洌 liè OC: b-red MC: liɛt 0 Attributions
- vibe chill
Existing SW for
Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: