COLD  

TEMPERATURE RESEMBLING that of ICE AND being the OPPOSITE of HOT.
CHILLYCHILLCOOLFREEZINGICYSNOWYWINTRYFROSTYFRIGIDGELIDBITTERBITINGRAWBONE-CHILLINGNIPPYARCTIC
Taxonoymy

COOL

Antonymy

HOTWARM

Kind Of

TEMPERATURE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard current word referring to coldness is hán 寒 (ant. wēn 溫, rè 熱 "warm").

2. Lěng 冷 refers to anything fresh and cool rather than rè 熱 "unpleasantly hot".

3. Dòng 凍 describes a very high degree of coldness, typically below the freezing point of water.

4. Liáng 涼 (ant. wēn 溫 "lukewarm") describes a mild form of coldness, prototypically that of a cool breeze liáng fēng 涼風.

5. Qīng 清 (ant. rù 溽 "unpleasantly humid and warm") describes a mild, fresh coolness of climate rather than of liquids or solids.

Modern Chinese Criteria

涼快

寒冷

冰冷

冰涼

冷冰冰

筋骨瑟縮

輕寒

薄寒

清寒

冷颼颼

冷森森

冷絲絲

苦寒

嚴寒

酷寒

高寒

冷峭

寒峭

料峭

凜冽

凜厲

刺骨

乾冷

淒清

凜凜

淒淒

寒氣襲人

天寒地凍

天寒地坼

滴水成冰

冰天雪地

冰凍三尺

墮指裂膚

砭人肌骨

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 1241

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 745

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 15.86

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

COLD

frigere refers to anything that is cold.

algere refers to feeling unpleasantly cold.

algidus refers to an unpleasant chill.

alsus refers to refreshing coolness.

frigidus refers to a moderate degree of coldness.

gelidus refers to something being on the point of freezing.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 96

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 929

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 305

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 2.1192

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 63

WANG WEIHUI 2000 東漢﹣隨常用詞演變研究 349

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 63

1. It should be noted that ha2n 寒 is ubiquitous, whereas le3ng 冷 hardly ever occurs, and also lia2ng 涼 is not a current word, and the natural suspicion is that really ha2n 寒 did cover everything from very cold to cool, but in fact, the connotation of ha2n 寒 always seems to have been negative or unpleasant thus excluding the pleasant cool breeze lia2ng fe1ng 涼風 which does get mentioned a few times in the literature.

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

algeo 'to be cold, freeze' [v. II; pf. alsT} (P1.+)

Derivatives: algor [m.] 'cold' (P1.+), algus, -us 'id.' (P1.+), algidus 'cold' (Naev.+).

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.399

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 25
  • nab : 25
  • vadN : 12
  • vi0 : 7
  • vtoN : 4
  • vtoN : 3
  • nadN : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • NP : 1
  • VPi0 : 1
  • vadS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 9
  • 呂氏春秋 : 7
  • 論衡 : 7
  • 管子 : 7
  • 莊子 : 7
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 禮記 : 6
  • 百喻經 : 6
  • 春秋左傳 : 4
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 文子 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   hán OC: ɡaan MC: ɦɑn 53 Attributions

The standard current word referring to coldness is hán 寒 (ant. standardly shǔ 暑, but also wēn 溫, rè 熱 "warm").

  • nabeventperiod of coldness, cold spell
  • nabstativethe cold; state of coldness
  • nadNcaused by coldness; originating from coldness
  • vadNcold
  • vadSwhen it is cold; in winter
  • vibe cold (of persons), go cold; fresh and chilly; be cold (as winter)
  • visubjectivefeel cold
  • vi0changeit turns cold
  • vi0stativeit is cold
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe colder than N
  • vtoNexpose to the cold
  • v[adN]N=humpeople suffering from cold
  • vtoNcause to be cold; cause to feel cold
  • vifeel cold because one does not have enough clothes to keep oneself warm
   liáng OC: ɡ-raŋ MC: li̯ɐŋ 8 Attributions

Liáng 涼 (ant. wēn 溫 "lukewarm") describes a mild form of coldness, prototypically that of a cool breeze liáng fēng 涼風.

  • nabfigurativerefreshing coldness; chill
  • vadNrefreshingly cool; cold
  • vicool as water (in summer); be cool (as spring)
  • vtoNcausativecause it to be cool
   líng OC: ɡ-reeŋ MC: leŋ 7 Attributions

Lěng 冷 refers to anything fresh and cool rather than rè 熱 "unpleasantly hot".

  • nabfeaturecoldness
  • nabstativecoldness (of water/liquid)
  • vadNcold
  • vifresh and cool
  • vichangeturn cold; become colder; cool off
  • vt(oN)causativemake the contextually determinate N cool
   dòng OC: tooŋs MC: tuŋ 6 Attributions

Dòng 凍 describes a very high degree of coldness, typically below the freezing point of water.

  • nabstativefrost
  • vadNfreezing; very cold; frozen
  • vifeel cold, freeze; suffer from the cold
  • vtoNcausativeallow or cause to freeze
   qīng OC: tsheŋ MC: tshiɛŋ 3 Attributions

Qīng 清 (ant. rù 溽 "unpleasantly humid and warm") describes a mild, fresh coolness of climate rather than of liquids or solids.

  • nabstativestate of chilliness, chill; fresh coolness
  • vifresh and cool
   sǐ OC: pliʔ MC: si 2 Attributions
  • vadNdead and cold (ashes)
   liè OC: b-red MC: liɛt 1 Attribution
  • viSHI: biting cold as wind and waves
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution

  • vichangebecome very cold> freeze
   xié OC: ɡriid MC: ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • vicold
寒凍   hán dòng OC: ɡaan tooŋs MC: ɦɑn tuŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPi0resultativeit was very cold
清涼   qīng liáng OC: tsheŋ ɡ-raŋ MC: tshiɛŋ li̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPfigurativeBUDDH: coolness (often used as description of nirvāṇa 涅槃); SANSKRIT śītī-bhāva, PALI sīti-bhāva
   hù OC: ɢaas MC: ɦuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • virare: freeze
   qìng OC: tsheŋs MC: tshiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativeto make cold; to cool
   líng OC: b-rɯŋ MC: lɨŋ 0 Attributions
  • npost-Han: ice as substance used for keeping foodstuff cold or for consumption
淒 / 凄   qī OC:  MC: tshei qī OC: shiil MC: tshei 0 Attributions
  • vicool and chilly; cold
  • vadNcool and chilly; cold
凔 / 滄 / 滄 / 滄   cāng OC: skhaaŋ MC: tshɑŋ cāng OC: skhaaŋ MC: tshɑŋ chuàng OC: skhraŋs MC: ʈʂhi̯ɐŋ cāng OC: skhaaŋ MC: tshɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • vifresh and chilly
   lǐn OC: b-rɯmʔ MC: lim 0 Attributions
  • vimedical, SUWEN: of the cold category; CC: severely cold, biting cold
   níng OC: ŋɡɯŋ MC: ŋɨŋ 0 Attributions
       jiē OC: kriid MC: kɣɛi 0 Attributions
    • vibe chilly
       lì OC: b-riɡ MC: lit 0 Attributions
    • viK: bitterly cold??
       líng OC: ɡ-reeŋ MC: leŋ 0 Attributions
    • vichilly??? mistake for 冷
       liè OC: b-red MC: liɛt 0 Attributions
    • vibe chill

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: