AIR  空氣

GAS ANIMALS BREATHE to LIVE.
SKYATMOSPHEREHEAVENSETHER
Taxonoymy

WIND

See also

BREATHE

Kind Of

GAS

Old Chinese Criteria

[ABSTRACT/CONCRETE]

[COMMON/RARE]

[GENERAL/SPECIALISED]

[IMMOBILE/MOBILE]

1. Fēng 風 "wind" is primarily air-in-motion, but does sometimes seems to refer to what we would call "air", as in ZHUANG 1.

CONCRETE, [MOBILE!]; [[COMMON]]

2. Qì 氣 "ether" is typically more abstract than English "air" and refers to constitutive energies underlying both air and wind as well as fog, dew, rivers, mountains and so on. The word is also the standard word for "breath".

[ABSTRACT]; [[COMMON]]

3. Fēn 氛 usually refers to vapour as manifestation of auspicious or inauspicious occurrences, and the word is marginal in this series.

[SPECIALISED]; [[RARE]]

NB: The abstract notion of "air" as such is not currently focussed on in early Chinese literature.

Modern Chinese Criteria

空氣

大氣

冷氣

涼氣

寒氣

冷空氣

寒潮

寒流

暖氣

熱氣

熱浪

暑氣

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 1.71

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 456

AER

Splendid summary of current understanding of this element.

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 1

82. Utrumque ostendit Varro, lib. IV ling. Lat., dict. Coelum.

-- Sane... Ex Servio, ad illud III Aen.: Nec lucidus aethra siderea polus.

]

82. Inter Coelum et aether ita distinguitur. Quod non tantum ille astriferus [ F., astrifer] locus, sed et [col. 19B] iste aer coelum vocatur. Aether autem sublimior coeli pars est, in quo sidera constituta sunt. Sane et aether 13 aer ignens est superior, aethra vero lux et splendor est aetheris.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

AETHER, AER

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 257

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.181

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 69

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no. 34

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms no. 34

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 209B

AETHER(LUFT)

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nm : 16
  • nadV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 禮記 : 5
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1

Words

   qì OC: khɯds MC: khɨi 8 Attributions

Qì 氣 "ether" is typically more abstract than English "air" and refers to constitutive energies underlying both air and wind as well as fog, dew, rivers, mountains and so on. The word is also the standard word for "breath". [ABSTRACT]; [[COMMON]]

  • nmair, atmosphere; ether
  • nmmobilebreath; breath and inner vital energies, breath and spirits; vital spirits of a person
   fēng OC: plum MC: puŋ 8 Attributions

Fēng 風 "wind" is primarily air-in-motion, but does sometimes seems to refer to what we would call "air", as in ZHUANG 1. CONCRETE, [MOBILE!]; [[COMMON]]

  • nmthe air carried by the wind: air
  • nadVlike the air; like a breeze
   kōng OC: khooŋ MC: khuŋ 1 Attribution
  • nmmidair; air; space
   fēn OC: phɯn MC: phi̯un 0 Attributions

Fēn 氛 usually refers to vapour as manifestation of auspicious or inauspicious occurrences, and the word is marginal in this series. [SPECIALISED]; [[RARE]]

  • nmvapour, gas
   xū OC: qhla MC: hi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • nmair

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: