HINDER  阻礙

STOP from ACT:doing what someone or something INTENDS to ACT:do.
PREVENTHAMPEROBSTRUCTIMPEDEINHIBITRETARDBALKPREVENTTHWARTFOILCURBDELAYARRESTINTERFERE WITHSET BACKSLOW DOWNHOBBLEHOLD BACKHOLD UPSTOPHALTRESTRICTRESTRAINCONSTRAINBLOCKCHECKCURTAILFRUSTRATECRAMPHANDICAPCRIPPLEHAMSTRINGINFORMAL STYMIETHROW A WRENCH IN THE WORKS
Taxonoymy

BLOCKFEND OFFGATERESTRAIN

Antonymy

CAUSE TOHELP

See also

FORBID

Kind Of

STOP

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for putting obstacles in the way of something or someone is zǔ 阻 (ant. zhù 助 "help"). See also BLOCK

2. Jǔ 沮 (ant. quàn 勸 "encourage") refers to failing to support someone else and dissuading him from pursuing an intended course of action.

3. Zhàng 障 refers to putting a permanent hindrance in the way of something.

4. Ài 礙 refers to an action designed to prevent another action, but the word gained currency quite late.

5. Jù 距 / 拒 refers to an action designed to counteract another action that has been undertaken.

Modern Chinese Criteria

阻礙

妨礙

障礙

干礙

關礙

阻扰

打扰

阻止

礙事

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.59

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 101

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 116

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 116

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.210.171

DIFFICULTE.OBSTACLE.EMPECHEMENT

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.304

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 173

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 51
  • nab : 8
  • VPtoN : 6
  • n : 6
  • nab : 5
  • vt(oN) : 4
  • vt prep N : 3
  • NP : 3
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0] : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • vi : 1
  • NP{N1&N2} : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 1
  • nadN : 1
  • VPtpost.vt+N : 1
  • vtoN.adV : 1
  • vt+V[0] : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 15
  • 春秋左傳 : 13
  • 祖堂集 : 9
  • 說苑 : 8
  • 六祖壇經 : 6
  • 管子 : 5
  • 史記 : 4
  • 荀子 : 4
  • 論衡 : 4
  • 臨濟錄 : 4
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   jǔ OC: sɡaʔ MC: dzi̯ɤ 13 Attributions

Jǔ 沮(ant. quàn 勸 "encourage") refers to failing to support someone else and dissuading him from pursuing an intended course of action.

  • vtoNhinder, discourage, dissuade
  • vtoNpassivebe hindered; be stopped; be halted; feel prevented/discouraged
  • vt[oN]hinder [evil]
   zǔ OC: skraʔ MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ 13 Attributions

The current general word for putting obstacles in the way of something or someone is zǔ 阻 (ant. zhù 助 "help"). See also BLOCK

  • nnatural hindrance like rivers or mountains which prevent convenient transportation
  • vtoNto impede, to hinder; block
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe blocked; be impeded
  • nabsocialcountable: impediments
   zhàng OC: kjaŋs MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ 11 Attributions

Zhàng 障 refers to putting a permanent hindrance in the way of something.

  • nblock; hindrance
  • nabpsychBUDDH: mental hindrance; psychological obstruction
  • nadNfigurativeinhibiting
  • vt+prep+Nimpede something
  • vtoNobstruct; block; keep at bay
  • vtoNpassivebe blocked from seeing things
   zhǐ OC: kljɯʔ MC: tɕɨ 9 Attributions
  • vtoNstop, hinder, prevent
  • vtoNpassive
  • vt(oN)
   fāng OC: phaŋ MC: phi̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nbe in the way of
  • vt+V[0]be a hindrance to V
  • vtoNpsychhinder (oneself)
  • vtoNstativeget in the way of, be a hindrance to
  • vttoN.+V[0]hinder somebody to V
  • vtoNpassivemiddle voice, figurative: be blocked from view
   náo OC: mɢreewʔ MC: ɳɣɛu 6 Attributions
  • vtoNinterfere with; confuse and stand in the way of
  • vtoNcausativeprovoke (somebody N) to perform an action that he/she does not want to perform at the moment
   fáng OC: baŋ MC: bi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • vtoNguard against; prevent
  • vtoNimperativehinder!
   zhì OC: dads MC: ɖiɛi 3 Attributions
  • nobstacle which clogs things (typically waterways)
  • vt(oN)stop or impede the contextually determinate N
  • vtoNpassiveget bogged down with, get stuck with
   ài OC: ŋɡɯɯs MC: ŋəi 3 Attributions

Ài 礙 refers to an action designed to prevent another action, but the word gained currency quite late.

  • nabfeatureobstacle, hindrance
  • nabfigurativeobstruction
  • vtoNLIE: to obstruct, impede
   yāo OC: qew MC: ʔiɛu 3 Attributions
  • vt(oN)intercept; to block (a contextually determinate object); prevent (a contextually determinate object) moving further
  • vtoNhinder, stand in the way of; intercept
   gé OC: kreeɡ MC: kɣɛk 3 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVhindered by, separated by; with N inbetween
  • vtoNobstruct, get in the way of, get between
  • vtoNfigurativebe obstructed; be hindered
   yù OC: ŋas MC: ŋi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • vistand in the way, be in the way, be a hindrance
  • vt(oN)stand in the way/hinder the contextually determinate N
  • vtoNstand in the way of
   jù OC: ɡaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 2 Attributions

Jù 距/拒 refers to an action designed to counteract another action that has been undertaken.

  • vtoNstave off; block and keep away, hinder and keep at a distance
勿使   wù shǐ OC: mɯd srɯʔ MC: mi̯ut ʂɨ 2 Attributions
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]prevent the contextually determinate N from V-ing; ensure that N does not V
障礙   zhāng ài OC: kjaŋ ŋɡɯɯs MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ ŋəi 2 Attributions
  • NPhindrance, obstacle
   yīn OC: qin MC: ʔin 1 Attribution
  • vtoNhinder the flow of, dam up
戶 / 扈   hù OC: ɡlaaʔ MC: ɦuo̝ hù OC: ɡlaaʔ MC: ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNhinder, dissuade
   ài OC: ŋɡɯɯɡs MC: ŋəi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNobstruct; hinder (LIE) ??
  • nhindrance, blockage
凝滯   níng zhì OC: ŋɡɯŋ dads MC: ŋɨŋ ɖiɛi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe hindered or blocked by
前卻   qián què OC: dzeen khaɡ MC: dzen khi̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe interfered with
卻滯   què zhì OC: khaɡ dads MC: khi̯ɐk ɖiɛi 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)block up, hinder the free flow of
夭閼   yāo è OC: qrow qaad MC: ʔiɛu ʔɑt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNstand in the way of
妨廢   fāng fèi OC: phaŋ pods MC: phi̯ɐŋ pi̯ɐi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNhinder and lead to the abandonment of
為難   wéi nán OC: ɢʷal mɢlaan MC: ɦiɛ nɑn 1 Attribution
  • VPtpost.vt+Ncause trouble for 與N為難
罣礙   guà ài OC: kʷrees ŋɡɯɯs MC: kɣɛ ŋəi 1 Attribution
  • NPabfigurativehindrance, obstruction
  • VPtoNfigurativehinder, obstruct
防護   fáng hù OC: baŋ ɢʷaaɡs MC: bi̯ɐŋ ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNhinder; keep abay; keep away
阻礙   zǔ ài OC: skraʔ ŋɡɯɯs MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ ŋəi 1 Attribution
  • NPhindrance
障塞   zhàng sāi OC: kjaŋs sɯɯɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ sək 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe blocked
障隔   zhāng gé OC: kjaŋ kreeɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ kɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPabfigurativehinrance, obstacle
險阻   xiǎn zǔ OC: qhromʔ skraʔ MC: hiɛm ʈʂi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1&N2}obstacle; hindrance; strategic natural hindrance
   sāi 1 Attribution
  • nabstativehindrance
   qū MC: -- OC: kha 1 Attribution
  • vt prep N= qu1 阹: get stuck at the place N, become stranded at the place N
   chì OC: khrleds MC: ʈhiɛi 0 Attributions
  • vtoNhinder; detain
  • vtoNpassivebe hindered; detained
   zuǒ OC: skaalʔ MC: tsɑ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNab{S}be in the way of; oppose
   ài OC: ŋɡɯɯɡs MC: ŋəi 0 Attributions
  • vtoNhinder; obstruct (LIE)
   lù OC: ɡ-raaɡs MC: luo̝ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNread yà intercept
   gù OC: kaaɡs MC: kuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNbar from taking office; bar from employment
阻絕   zǔ jué OC: skraʔ dzod MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ dziɛt 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNpassivebe impeded

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: