HINDER  阻礙

STOP from ACT:doing what someone or something INTENDS to ACT:do.
PREVENTHAMPEROBSTRUCTIMPEDEINHIBITRETARDBALKPREVENTTHWARTFOILCURBDELAYARRESTINTERFERE WITHSET BACKSLOW DOWNHOBBLEHOLD BACKHOLD UPSTOPHALTRESTRICTRESTRAINCONSTRAINBLOCKCHECKCURTAILFRUSTRATECRAMPHANDICAPCRIPPLEHAMSTRINGINFORMAL STYMIETHROW A WRENCH IN THE WORKS
Antonym

CAUSE TOMOVE in SUCH a way that THEREFORE someone or something else CHANGES.HELPTRY to PROFIT someone OR to CAUSE a person TO ACHIEVE something one BELIEVES is DIFFICULT for that person.

Hypernym

STOPACT so as NOT to CONTINUE NOW:present ACTION. -> ACTMOVE OR NOT MOVE CONFORMING to one's SELF:own DECIDE:decision. -> MOVECHANGE PLACE OR SITUATION. -> CHANGEEVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2. -> EVENTREALITY that ARISES in TIME. -> REALITYEXIST and NOT ONLY BE IMAGINED. -> EXISTBE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME. -> BE INRELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

See also

FORBIDCOMMAND NOT to ACT:do something.

Hyponym
  • BLOCK HINDER something by PUTTING something in a PLACE where it CAUSES THINGS which NORMALLY CAN MOVE in that PLACE NOT TO MOVE there.
    • SHUT BLOCK a DOOR OR A GATE in an ORDINARY WAY.
    • FEND OFF HINDER someone who ATTACKS so as to CAUSE him TO LEAVE.
      • GATE MOBILE TIMBER HINDER:barrier IN a BIG HOLE THROUGH WHICH ONE WALKS so as to ENTER something.
        • PASS GATE IN LANDSCAPE THROUGH WHICH TRAFFIC HAS TO ENTER.
        • RESTRAIN HINDER from being UNRESTRAINED.
          • PUNISH RESTRAIN OR DAMAGE a CULPRIT BECAUSE of his/her CRIMES.
            • BANISH PUNISH someone so as to COMMAND HIM/HER to LEAVE the STATE of which he/she is a CITIZEN OR in which he/she LIVES.
            • PENALTY MONEY to be PAID as PUNISHMENT.
            • PUNITIVE LABOUR PUNISHMENT in the form of COMMANDED DIFFICULT WORK.
            • BRAND To PUNISH so as to BURN an IMAGE into the SKIN of someone.
            • RETRIBUTION DIVINE PUNISHMENT OR REWARD of HUMANS BASED on their EVIL OR GOOD ACTIONS respectively.
          • MODERATION CULTIVATE ONESELF so as to cause oneself to BE ENDURINGLY RESTRAINED.
            • FRUGAL MODERATE in USING MONEY AND PROPERTY.
            • ABSTINENCE INTENSE MODERATION IN-RELATION-TO what one DESIRES OR WHAT OTHERS DESIRE.
            • ASCETICISM INTENSE MODERATION REGARDING ALL NATURAL HUMAN DESIRES.
        Old Chinese Criteria

        1. The current general word for putting obstacles in the way of something or someone is zǔ 阻 (ant. zhù 助 "help"). See also BLOCK

        2. Jǔ 沮 (ant. quàn 勸 "encourage") refers to failing to support someone else and dissuading him from pursuing an intended course of action.

        3. Zhàng 障 refers to putting a permanent hindrance in the way of something.

        4. Ài 礙 refers to an action designed to prevent another action, but the word gained currency quite late.

        5. Jù 距 / 拒 refers to an action designed to counteract another action that has been undertaken.

        Modern Chinese Criteria

        阻礙

        妨礙

        障礙

        干礙

        關礙

        阻扰

        打扰

        阻止

        礙事

        rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

        • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 19.59

        • “孟子”同義詞研究 ( MENGZI TONGYI 2002) p. 101

        • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 116

        • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 116

        • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.210.171

          DIFFICULTE.OBSTACLE.EMPECHEMENT

        • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.304

        • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 173

        Attributions by syntactic funtion

        • vtoN : 30
        • nab : 8
        • VPtoN : 6
        • nab : 5
        • n : 5
        • vt(oN) : 4
        • NP : 3
        • vt prep N : 2
        • NPab : 2
        • vtoN.adV : 1
        • vt+V[0] : 1
        • VPt(oN) : 1
        • vttoN.+V[0] : 1
        • nadN : 1

        Attributions by text

        • 祖堂集 : 9
        • 說苑 : 8
        • 六祖壇經 : 6
        • 管子 : 5
        • 荀子 : 4
        • 論衡 : 4
        • 臨濟錄 : 4
        • 史記 : 3
        • 百喻經 : 3
        • 孟子 : 3
        • 墨子 : 2
        • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
        • 楚辭 : 2
        • 法句經 : 2
        • 鹽鐵論 : 2
        • 賢愚經 : 2
        • 毛詩 : 2
        • 淮南子 : 1
        • 法言 : 1
        • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
        • 尚書 : 1
        • 孫子 : 1
        • 呂氏春秋 : 1
        • 莊子 : 1

        Words

           zǔ OC: skraʔ MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ 10 Attributions

        The current general word for putting obstacles in the way of something or someone is zǔ 阻 (ant. zhù 助 "help"). See also BLOCK

        • nnatural hindrance like rivers or mountains which prevent convenient transportation
        • vtoNto impede, to hinder; block
        • vtoNmiddle voicebe blocked; be impeded
        • nabsocialcountable: impediments
           zhàng OC: kjaŋs MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ 8 Attributions

        Zhàng 障 refers to putting a permanent hindrance in the way of something.

        • nblock; hindrance
        • nabpsychBUDDH: mental hindrance; psychological obstruction
        • nadNfigurativeinhibiting
        • vt+prep+Nimpede something
        • vtoNobstruct; block; keep at bay
        • vtoNpassivebe blocked from seeing things
           zhǐ OC: kljɯʔ MC: tɕɨ 8 Attributions
        • vtoNstop, hinder, prevent
        • vtoNpassive
        • vt(oN)
           jǔ OC: sɡaʔ MC: dzi̯ɤ 6 Attributions

        Jǔ 沮(ant. quàn 勸 "encourage") refers to failing to support someone else and dissuading him from pursuing an intended course of action.

        • vtoNhinder, discourage, dissuade
        • vtoNpassivebe hindered; be stopped; be halted; feel prevented/discouraged
        • vt[oN]hinder [evil]
           fāng OC: phaŋ MC: phi̯ɐŋ 5 Attributions
        • vt+prep+Nbe in the way of
        • vt+V[0]be a hindrance to V
        • vtoNpsychhinder (oneself)
        • vtoNstativeget in the way of, be a hindrance to
        • vttoN.+V[0]hinder somebody to V
        • vtoNpassivemiddle voice, figurative: be blocked from view
           fáng OC: baŋ MC: bi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
        • vtoNguard against; prevent
        • vtoNimperativehinder!
           zhì OC: dads MC: ɖiɛi 3 Attributions
        • nobstacle which clogs things (typically waterways)
        • vt(oN)stop or impede the contextually determinate N
        • vtoNpassiveget bogged down with, get stuck with
           ài OC: ŋɡɯɯs MC: ŋəi 3 Attributions

        Ài 礙 refers to an action designed to prevent another action, but the word gained currency quite late.

        • nabfeatureobstacle, hindrance
        • nabfigurativeobstruction
        • vtoNLIE: to obstruct, impede
           náo OC: mɢreewʔ MC: ɳɣɛu 2 Attributions
        • vtoNinterfere with; confuse and stand in the way of
        • vtoNcausativeprovoke (somebody N) to perform an action that he/she does not want to perform at the moment
           yāo OC: qew MC: ʔiɛu 2 Attributions
        • vt(oN)intercept; to block (a contextually determinate object); prevent (a contextually determinate object) moving further
        • vtoNhinder, stand in the way of; intercept
           gé OC: kreeɡ MC: kɣɛk 2 Attributions
        • vtoN.adVhindered by, separated by; with N inbetween
        • vtoNobstruct, get in the way of, get between
        • vtoNfigurativebe obstructed; be hindered
        障礙   zhāng ài OC: kjaŋ ŋɡɯɯs MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ ŋəi 2 Attributions
        • NPhindrance, obstacle
           yīn OC: qin MC: ʔin 1 Attribution
        • vtoNhinder the flow of, dam up
           yù OC: ŋas MC: ŋi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
        • vistand in the way, be in the way, be a hindrance
        • vt(oN)stand in the way/hinder the contextually determinate N
        • vtoNstand in the way of
           ài OC: ŋɡɯɯɡs MC: ŋəi 1 Attribution
        • vtoNobstruct; hinder (LIE) ??
        • nhindrance, blockage
        凝滯   níng zhì OC: ŋɡɯŋ dads MC: ŋɨŋ ɖiɛi 1 Attribution
        • VPtoNpassivebe hindered or blocked by
        前卻   qián què OC: dzeen khaɡ MC: dzen khi̯ɐk 1 Attribution
        • VPtoNpassivebe interfered with
        卻滯   què zhì OC: khaɡ dads MC: khi̯ɐk ɖiɛi 1 Attribution
        • VPt(oN)block up, hinder the free flow of
        夭閼   yāo è OC: qrow qaad MC: ʔiɛu ʔɑt 1 Attribution
        • VPtoNstand in the way of
        妨廢   fāng fèi OC: phaŋ pods MC: phi̯ɐŋ pi̯ɐi 1 Attribution
        • VPtoNhinder and lead to the abandonment of
        罣礙   guà ài OC: kʷrees ŋɡɯɯs MC: kɣɛ ŋəi 1 Attribution
        • NPabfigurativehindrance, obstruction
        • VPtoNfigurativehinder, obstruct
        防護   fáng hù OC: baŋ ɢʷaaɡs MC: bi̯ɐŋ ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution
        • VPtoNhinder; keep abay; keep away
        阻礙   zǔ ài OC: skraʔ ŋɡɯɯs MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ ŋəi 1 Attribution
        • NPhindrance
        障塞   zhàng sāi OC: kjaŋs sɯɯɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ sək 1 Attribution
        • VPtoNpassivebe blocked
        障隔   zhāng gé OC: kjaŋ kreeɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ kɣɛk 1 Attribution
        • NPabfigurativehinrance, obstacle
           sāi 1 Attribution
        • nabstativehindrance
           qū MC: -- OC: kha 1 Attribution
        • vt prep N= qu1 阹: get stuck at the place N, become stranded at the place N
           chì OC: khrleds MC: ʈhiɛi 0 Attributions
        • vtoNhinder; detain
        • vtoNpassivebe hindered; detained
           zuǒ OC: skaalʔ MC: tsɑ 0 Attributions
        • vtoNab{S}be in the way of; oppose
        戶 / 扈   hù OC: ɡlaaʔ MC: ɦuo̝ hù OC: ɡlaaʔ MC: ɦuo̝ 0 Attributions
        • vtoNhinder, dissuade
           ài OC: ŋɡɯɯɡs MC: ŋəi 0 Attributions
        • vtoNhinder; obstruct (LIE)
           jù OC: ɡaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 0 Attributions

        Jù 距/拒 refers to an action designed to counteract another action that has been undertaken.

        • vtoNstave off; block and keep away, hinder and keep at a distance
           lù OC: ɡ-raaɡs MC: luo̝ 0 Attributions
        • vtoNread yà intercept
           gù OC: kaaɡs MC: kuo̝ 0 Attributions
        • vtoNbar from taking office; bar from employment
        勿使   wù shǐ OC: mɯd srɯʔ MC: mi̯ut ʂɨ 0 Attributions
        • vtt(oN.)+V[0]prevent the contextually determinate N from V-ing; ensure that N does not V
        為難   wéi nán OC: ɢʷal mɢlaan MC: ɦiɛ nɑn 0 Attributions
        • VPtpost.vt+Ncause trouble for 與N為難
        阻絕   zǔ jué OC: skraʔ dzod MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ dziɛt 0 Attributions
        • VPtoNpassivebe impeded
        險阻   xiǎn zǔ OC: qhromʔ skraʔ MC: hiɛm ʈʂi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
        • NP{N1&N2}obstacle; hindrance; strategic natural hindrance

        Existing SW for

        Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: