BREAK OFF  打斷

REMOVE VIOLENTLY by TWISTING OR BENDING INTENSELY.
FRACTURECRACK
See also

CUTSPLITDESTROY

Kind Of

REMOVE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general word for breaking anything off is zhé 折 and the word refers to the action of breaking something off as such; the action of breaking is not necessarily attributed to a person or animal: the wind may zhé 折 something off.

2. Duàn 斷 refers to the resultative aspect of the breaking off, typically also cutting off, and the word tended to be metaphorical in early texts, increasingly taking on its concrete meaning at later stages. See CUT.

3. Jué 絕 refers - often metaphorically - to causing something to become discontinuous, to be interrupted or broken off.

4. Cuī 摧 explicitly refers to human actions of breaking off. (If passivised, these verbs always invite the question of who the agent was.)

5. Cuò 挫 refers specifically to blunting the edge of something by breaking off what is sharp, and the word is in any case marginal in this group.

Modern Chinese Criteria

折斷

斷裂

摧折

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.26

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BREAK

frangere refers to breaking what is hard.

rumpere refers to rending what is flexible.

disrumpere refers to breaking into several pieces what was originally one whole.

diffringere ditto.

divellere refers to tearing asunder what was joined together.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 174

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 81

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 302

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 38
  • VPtoN : 10
  • vi : 6
  • v[adN] : 1
  • nab : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 9
  • 春秋左傳 : 8
  • 祖堂集 : 7
  • 論衡 : 6
  • 百喻經 : 6
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   zhé OC: kljed MC: tɕiɛt 21 Attributions

The most general word for breaking anything off is zhé 折and the word refers to the action of breaking something off as such; the action of breaking is not necessarily attributed to a person or animal: the wind may zhé 折 something off.

  • vichangeget broken, get broken off
  • vichangeget broken off
  • vtoNbreak off; take off (an ear); have (one's ribs etc) broken
  • vtoNmiddle voicehave (one's leg) broken off
   jué OC: dzod MC: dziɛt 16 Attributions

Jué 絕 refers - often metaphorically - to causing something to become discontinuous, to be interrupted or broken off.

  • nabactthe breaking off of relations with
  • vtoNbreak; break off; snap
  • vtoNfigurativemiddle voice: be broken off > be discontinued
  • vtoNfigurativebreak off relations with
  • vtoNreflexive.自break onself off from> cut oneself off from
  • v[adN]passivewhat has been broken off, what has been cut off; what has b
  • vttoN1.+N2N1=recipientcut off N2 for sake of N1 (e.g. road etc.)
斷絕   duàn jué OC: doonʔ dzod MC: dʷɑn dziɛt 7 Attributions
  • VPtoNfigurativecause to be discontinuous and broken off > disrupt, break off
  • VPtoNfigurativebe broken off; be discontinued
   cuī OC: sɡluul MC: dzuo̝i 3 Attributions

Cuī 摧 explicitly refers to human actions of breaking off. (If passivised, these verbs always invite the question of who the agent was.)

  • vtoNbreak off
  • vtoNfigurativebe broken
   cuò OC: skools MC: tsʷɑ 2 Attributions

Cuò 挫refers specifically to blunting the edge of something by breaking off what is sharp, and the word is in any case marginal in this group.

  • vt+prep+Npassiveto be maltreated (by somebody)
  • vtoNpassivebreak, get broken off
   lā OC: ɡ-rɯɯb MC: ləp 2 Attributions
  • vtoNhave (one's teeth etc) broken (off); break (ribs)
打折   dǎ shé OC: rtaaŋʔ ɡljed MC: tɣaŋ dʑiɛt 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativebreak to pieces
   duàn OC: doonʔ MC: dʷɑn 1 Attribution

Duàn 斷 emphasises to the decisive resultative aspect of the breaking off, typically also cutting off, and the word tended to be metaphorical in early texts, increasingly taking on its concrete meaning at later stages. See CUT.

  • vtoNN=massget broken (not necessarily "be broken by someone".
  • vtoNperfectivebreak off, break to pieces
   jué OC: kʷeed MC: ket 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivecome off, get detached
擊折   jī zhé OC: keeɡ kljed MC: kek tɕiɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativestrike so as to break
    MC: -- OC: -- 1 Attribution
  • vtoNmiddle voiceget broken; get uprooted
   lā OC: ɡ-ruub MC: ləp 0 Attributions
  • vtoNXINXU break off
打斷   dǎ duàn OC: rtaaŋʔ doonʔ MC: tɣaŋ dʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNfigurativebreak off, cutt off

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: