See also


Kind Of


Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general term for the earth or land is dì 地 (ant. tiān 天 "Heaven").

2. Kūn 坤 (ant. qián 乾 is a metaphysical way of referring to Earth as an agentive principle.

3. Lù 陸 (ant. shuǐ 水 ) refers to land versus river or sea areas.

Modern Chinese Criteria


寰球 focusses on the earth but includes the whole universe.

寰宇 refers to the universe without a special focus on the earth and is obviously marginal in the group. See UNIVERSE

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 1.21

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 3

552. Inter Terram, et tellurem, et humum. Terra squalida est et inculta, tellus fructifera; humus autem, inferior, et deorsum, et humida [ Al. add. tellus]. Unde et humati, sepulti. Generaliter autem ubique terra est, non ubique humus. Et in parietibus terra est, hoc est in lateribus, et non est humus. Humus autem terra humida est, et ab humore vocata, sicut et terra, quod naturali siccitate torreat, sicut et tellus. quod fructus [ Al., fructum] ejus tollimus.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum


LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 10

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.1338

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.149

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 18
  • nab : 5
  • nadV : 5
  • nadN : 2
  • vi : 2
  • NPab : 1
  • NP : 1

Attributions by text

  • 荀子 : 8
  • 韓非子 : 5
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 周易 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 春秋左傳 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1


   dì OC: lils MC: di 22 Attributions

The current general term for the earth or land is dì 地 (ant. tiān 天"Heaven").

  • nthe earth, the ground
  • nabmetaphysicalEarth (versus Heaven) (as a metaphysical force)
  • nadNearth-assigned
  • nadVplaceon earth 地生 "grow on earth"
  • vadNlike Nlike earth
  • viactbe broadly supportive like Earth;
  • vifigurativebe earth-like; become earth-like
   lù OC: m-ruɡ MC: luk 6 Attributions

Lù 陸(ant. shuǐ 水) refers to land versus river or sea areas.

  • nland (versus sea), mainland
  • nadVplaceon land, by land 陸行travel by land
   kūn OC: khuun MC: khuo̝n 3 Attributions

Kūn 坤 (ant. qián 乾is a metaphysical way of referring to Earth as an agentive principle.

  • n(abstract, cosmological:) earth (YI)
   péi OC: bɯɯ MC: buo̝i 1 Attribution
  • naccumulated earth, small mound of earth
下方   xià fāng OC: ɢraaʔ paŋ MC: ɦɣɛ pi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPthe mundane world on earth
地種   dì zhǒng OC: lils tjoŋʔ MC: di tɕi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalthe metaphysical element Earth
后土   hòu tǔ OC: ɡooʔ kh-laaʔ MC: ɦu thuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • NPprSovereign Earth
土地   tǔ dì OC: kh-laaʔ lils MC: thuo̝ di 0 Attributions
  • NPsingularEarth
士塊   shì kuài OC: dzrɯʔ khuuls MC: ɖʐɨ khuo̝i 0 Attributions
  • NPclod of earth
   xià OC: ɢraaʔ MC: ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • nearth

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: