TIME  時間

ABSTRACT OBJECT that all EVENTS ARE-IN.
Old Chinese Criteria

1. An abstract general word for time as such is rì yuè 日月 or nián suì 年歲.

2. Shí 時 refers to any period of time or point in time.

3. Jì 際 can refer to a juncture in time.

4. Jī 機 comes to refer to a crucial juncture or point in time, but so far no pre-Buddhist examples have been found.

Modern Chinese Criteria

時間

時刻

時日

工夫

功夫

日子

光陰

時光

韶光

韶華

年華

年光

流光

流年

年月

歲月

歲華

歲時

居諸

時候

時節

時分

時刻

天時

天道

早晚

當兒

天兒

時光

辰光

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 46

AION

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 181

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

TEMPUS

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 21

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.1298

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 12.1186

ZEIT

MITTELSTRASS 1996 Enzyklopaedie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie 4.827

ZEIT ETC.

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 319

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 154

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy 10.43

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

TIME/CONSCIOUSNESS OF, TIME

BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002 Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.281:187

DUREE.TEMPS

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.400

DIVISIONES 1906 Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae B 19

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 21
  • npost-N : 13
  • NPab : 7
  • NPadS : 7
  • n : 6
  • nab.post-S : 6
  • nadN : 3
  • nadV : 2
  • nab.post-N : 2
  • NPadV : 1
  • vt[oN.]adS : 1
  • NP : 1
  • nm : 1
  • n.red:adV : 1
  • NPab{N1&N2} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 百喻經 : 13
  • 韓非子 : 9
  • 論衡 : 7
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 賢愚經 : 4
  • 春秋左傳 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 朱子語類 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   shí OC: ɡljɯ MC: dʑɨ 25 Attributions

Shí 時 refers to any period of time or point in time.

  • nab.post-Sthe time when S obtained. Perhaps this must often be taken to work as nab.post-S1:adS2
  • nabdimensiondimension of time, German Zeitlichkeit
  • nabextentextent of time, time period
  • nadNof the time, of the period; contemporary
  • npost-Nperiod of time; era; age; times 文公之時
  • nabeventcourse of time
  • nabpluraltimes (changing)
   rì OC: mljiɡ MC: ȵit 10 Attributions
  • nabamount of time; a space of time; the time
  • npost-Npoint in time characterised by N
  • nabfigurativefree time
   jiān OC: kreen MC: kɣɛn 5 Attributions
  • na certain space of time 有間
  • nadVfor a moment; for a certain period of time
  • vt[oN.]adSafter the passing of the space of time N
   jì OC: skeds MC: tsiɛi 5 Attributions

Jì 際 can refer to a juncture in time.

  • nabjuncture, point in time; period in time
一時   yī shí OC: qliɡ ɡljɯ MC: ʔit dʑɨ 5 Attributions
  • NPadSindefonce upon a time (don't ask me when exactly!)
  • NPadSpastBuddhist, idiomatic: at a certain time in the past ("once upon a time" would imply that fictitiousness is implied and acknowledged. Whether it is remains a subtle open isue. The fictitiousness is in any case not openly acknowledged.)
日月   rì yuè OC: mljiɡ ŋod MC: ȵit ŋi̯ɐt 4 Attributions

An abstract general word for time as such is rì yuè日月 or nián suì 年歲.

  • NPab{N1&N2}concepttime
  • NPabtime
  • NPadVfor a day or a month
年月   nián yuè OC: niin ŋod MC: nen ŋi̯ɐt 3 Attributions
  • NPabtimenumber of years and months > time
   huì OC: ɡloobs MC: ɦɑi 2 Attributions
  • ntime, occasion
  • npost-Noccasions of N
   jī OC: kɯl MC: kɨi 2 Attributions
  • ncrucial point in time
   chù OC: qhljas MC: tɕhi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • nab.post-NTang dynasty: point in time, circumstances of time and place
少選之間   shǎo xuǎn zhī jiān MC: syewX sjwenX tsyi -- OC: hmljewʔ sqonʔ kljɯ -- 2 Attributions
  • NPadSafter a while; after some time
   xiǎo OC: smewʔ MC: siɛu 1 Attribution
  • nadVfor a short while, for a little while
   suì OC: sqʷads MC: siɛi 1 Attribution
  • nabdimensiontime
   xì OC: khaɡ MC: khɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • nabtimeinterval of time
光陰   guāng yīn OC: kʷaaŋ qrɯm MC: kɑŋ ʔim 1 Attribution
  • NPablight and shade > the flow of time > time
工夫   gōng fú OC: kooŋ ba MC: kuŋ bi̯o 1 Attribution
  • nmtime
年載   nián zǎi OC: niin skɯɯʔ MC: nen tsəi 1 Attribution
  • NPabtimeseveral years; cf. English "years and years"
時時   shí shí OC: ɡljɯ ɡljɯ MC: dʑɨ dʑɨ 1 Attribution
  • n.red:adVfrom time to time
際會   jì huì OC: skeds ɡloobs MC: tsiɛi ɦɑi 1 Attribution
  • NPtime, occasion
   qiū OC: tshiw MC: tshɨu 0 Attributions
  • npost-Nright time for N; proper season for N
中日   zhōng rì OC: krluŋ mljiɡ MC: ʈuŋ ȵit 0 Attributions
  • NPadSat midday
歲年   suì nián OC: sqʷads niin MC: siɛi nen 0 Attributions
  • NPabtimeperiod of several years in a row; very long time 積有歲年
歲月   suì yuè OC: sqʷads ŋod MC: siɛi ŋi̯ɐt 0 Attributions
  • NPabtimeyears and months; a long time
秋日   qiū rì OC: tshiw mljiɡ MC: tshɨu ȵit 0 Attributions
  • nequinox
日月光景   rì yuè guāng jǐng OC: mljiɡ ŋod kʷaaŋ kraŋʔ MC: ȵit ŋi̯ɐt kɑŋ kɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicaltime
   wèi OC: mɯds MC: mɨi 0 Attributions
  • nabtimeeighth double-hour into which the day was traditionally divided: 1-3 p.m.

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: