DRUM  

[[A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT of the percussive class, consisting of a hollow cylindrical or hemispherical frame of wood or metal, with a head of tightly stretched membrane at one or both ends, by the striking of which and the resonance of the cavity the sound is produced.]]
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for a drum is gǔ 鼓. The ancient Chinese drum was beaten on the sides and not on the top.

2. Pí 鼙 refers to a small handdrum wonderfully illustrated in a recent excavation from Sichuan.

3. Jiàn gǔ 建鼓 refers to a drum set up on a war chariot and used in war times to give signals to soldiers. [The term specifically refers to a drum used in this way in war times, but it can generally refer to any drum set up on a wooden base and beaten on two sides.

4. Gāo 鼛 refers to a large drum suspended on a frame. This was typically used to summon meetings. [Large drum used during feasts and to give signals in large public works; both functions are mentioned already in SHIJING.

5. Fú 桴/枹 is the current general term for a drumstick.

6. Fén 鼖 refers to a big drum which could be mounted on a vehicle and be used to give signals to soldiers.

7. Fǔ2 柎 refers to a small handdrum filled with grain which was used to give a rhytm in musical performances.

8. Táo 鞀 is a small two-eared hand-drum on the handle which one beat on by shaking it; it was used to regulate musical performances.

9. Qì 蟿 is drum used to announce the night watches which is mentioned in ZHOULI.

10. Tuó gǔ 鼉鼓 refers to a drum covered with alligator skin; the oldest evidence of this kind of drum is from the 3rd millenium B.C.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

ARTS 6.

鼓,鼓類打擊樂器的總稱。

鼙,帶柄小鼓。用作軍中令鼓,漢以後亦名騎鼓,也可在樂隊中用以裨助鼓節。

鼖,大鼓,長八尺,以鼓軍事。鼛,大鼓,長一丈二尺,主要用於役事,也用於演奏宴食之樂。

鼜,巡夜戒守所擊之鼓。

鞀,兩旁有耳的帶柄小鼓,轉動手柄使兩耳搖擺擊鼓發聲;樂隊演奏時,播鞀以節樂。

Modern Chinese Criteria

銅鼓

大鼓

小鼓

腰鼓

八角鼓

太平鼓

漁鼓

羯鼓

板鼓

定音鼓

簡板

呱嗒板兒

單皮

木魚

梆子

鐃鈸

鑼鼓

金鼓

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 229

Pauke:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 753

Gong:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 761

hsien-t'ao:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 815

Trommel:

SUN JI 漢代無知文化資料圖說 377

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 310

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 21
  • vt[oN] : 11
  • vtoN : 11
  • NP : 2
  • VPi : 1
  • v[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 13
  • 韓非子 : 7
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 論語 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1

Words

   gǔ OC: kaaʔ MC: kuo̝ 40 Attributions

The current general word for a drum is gǔ 鼓. The ancient Chinese drum was beaten on the sides and not on the top.

  • ndrum used to order troops to attackBUDDH: drum used in monasteries to accompany the recitation of scriptures or to signal activities
  • v[adN]drummer
  • vt[oN]beat the drum for an attack
  • vtoNbeat the drum to send (soldiers) into an attack
   táo OC: ɡ-laaw MC: dɑu 2 Attributions

Táo 鞀 is a small two-eared hand-drum on the handle which one beat on by shaking it; it was used to regulate musical performances.

  • nsmall hand-drum with two ears
法鼓   fǎ gǔ OC: pab kaaʔ MC: pi̯ɐp kuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: dharma Drum; SANSKRIT dharma-dundubhi
   pí OC: bee MC: bei 1 Attribution
  • nsmall drum played on horseback
   gāo OC: klɯɯw MC: kɑu 1 Attribution

Gāo 鼛 refers to a large drum suspended on a frame. This was typically used to summon meetings. [Large drum used during feasts and to give signals in large public works; both functions are mentioned already in SHIJING.

  • nlarge drum hung on a frame with which to call people to a gathering
鳴鼓   míng gǔ OC: mreŋ kaaʔ MC: mɣaŋ kuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPistrike the drum
   è OC: ŋɡlaaɡ MC: ŋɑk 0 Attributions
  • viactplay the solo drum
   shòu OC: djuʔ MC: dʑɨu 0 Attributions

DELENDUM

       fǔ OC: phoʔ MC: phi̯o 0 Attributions

    Fǔ 柎refers to a small handdrum filled with grain which was used to give a rhytm in musical performances.

    • na kind of drum
       qì OC: kheeɡs MC: khei 0 Attributions
    • ndrum used to announce the night watches
       fén OC: bɯn MC: bi̯un 0 Attributions

    Fén 鼖 refers to a big drum which could be mounted on a vehicle and be used to give signals to soldiers.

    • nZHOULI: big drum used in military camps
       táo OC: ɡ-laaw MC: dɑu 0 Attributions
    • na small hand-drum with ears and with a handle which one beats by shaking it while holding it by the handle. See táo 鞀
       pí OC: bee MC: bei 0 Attributions

    Pí 鼙 refers to a small handdrum wonderfully illustrated in a recent excavation from Sichuan.

    • nsmall hand drum
       qì OC: tshɯɯwɡ MC: tshek 0 Attributions

    Qì 蟿is drum used to announce the night watches which is mentioned in ZHOULI. CHECK CHARACTER

    • ndrum of the night-watch (ZHOULI)
    建鼓   jiàn gǔ OC: kans kaaʔ MC: ki̯ɐn kuo̝ 0 Attributions

    Jiàn gǔ 建鼓 refers to a drum set up on a war chariot and used in war times to give signals to soldiers. [The term specifically refers to a drum used in this way in war times, but it can generally refer to any drum set up on a wooden base and beaten on two sides.

    • NPa drum with a stand, set up on a chariot, beaten from the sides. Still current in Han times See illustrations.
    鼉鼓   tuó gǔ OC: daal kaaʔ MC: dɑ kuo̝ 0 Attributions

    Tuó gǔ 鼉鼓 refers to a drum covered with alligator skin; the oldest evidence of this kind of drum is from the 3rd millenium B.C..

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: