BELL  

METAL MUSICAL-INSTRUMENT RESEMBLE:like a BIG CUP which one CAUSES-TO PRODUCE SOUND by BEATING it USING a STICK.
Old Chinese Criteria

SEE ILLUSTRATIONS

1. The current general word for a bell of any kind is zhōng 鐘 / 鍾. When hung up singly, it is called tè zhōng 特鐘, with round opening as in illustration SUN JI. Rhythmic instrument. Also, hung up in a series of tuned bells, in two rows of eight bells each. Note that these bells were already rare by Han times. [In use mainly from the Western Zhou till the Warring States.]

[GENERAL]

2. Qìng 磬/罄 refers to music stones rather than bells, however, these "stones" could also be made of bronze.

3. Náo 鐃 small handbell with handle which is held in one hand and beaten with the other hand.

4. Zhēng 鉦 is a small bell with a handle like a náo 鐃, but somewhat larger, and not held in the hand but set up on a stand. It is used to order an army into retreat. (The gǔ 鼓 is used to order an army to attack.)

5. Líng 鈴 refers to a small bell with a handle at the top.

6. Duó 鐸 refers to a bell with a tongue which is similar to líng 鈴 but larger.

7. Chuí 棰 refers to a metal or wooden stick with which to strike bells of any kind from the outside in order sound the bell. See STICK

8. Yǔ 敔 is a rare word referring to a bell in the shape of a crouching tiger which is beaten using a bamboo stick. Apparently, this bell was only struck towards the end of a musical piece. [Mentioned in the YIJI chapter of the SHANGSHU. Description of the shape dates from the SONG. For a Chinese antiquity, I have not found any archaeological or pictorial evidence.]

9. Bó 鎛 refers to a kind of suspended bell which is similar to zhōng 鐘 / 鍾 but even larger. Bó 鎛 were suspended not in sets, but alone or in pairs.

10. Chún yú 錞于 refers to a special kind of bell.

11. Luán 鸞 is a bell fixed on vehicles and knives which was supposed to make a sound like a luán-bird or phoenix.

12. Luán 鑾 refers to a harness bell; probably identical with luán 鸞 : see LIJI.

13. Zhù 柷 refers in SHI to some kind of resonance box used in music, an instrument which was struck in the beginning of a musical piece.

Modern Chinese Criteria

鈴鐺

令丁

鈴鐸

門鈴

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 215

Glocke:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 753

Glocke:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 814

to, Kloeppelglocke:

SUN JI 漢代無知文化資料圖說 376

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 311/2

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1519

鈴,鐸

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1556

鏞,鑮

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 65
  • nadN : 14
  • NP : 2
  • VP[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 禮記 : 25
  • 毛詩 : 17
  • 春秋左傳 : 11
  • 韓非子 : 6
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 論語 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   luán OC: b-roon MC: lʷɑn 30 Attributions

Luán 鑾 refers to a harness bell; probably identical with luán 鸞: see LIJI

  • nbell fixed on vehicles (eight of them), also on horse-bits, and on knives (!) which was supposed to make a sound like a luán-bird or phoenix
  • nadNfurnished with a bell 鸞刀
   zhōng OC: tjoŋ MC: tɕi̯oŋ 19 Attributions
  • nlarge suspended bell without a clapper; bell without a clapper
   duó OC: laaɡ MC: dɑk 7 Attributions

Duó 鐸 refers to a bell with a tongue which is similar to líng 鈴 but larger.

  • nbell with a tongue, often used in warfare to declare war ritually. The tongue can be of timber (for ritual purposes) or of metal (for open air use in warfare with zhēng 鉦)
   hé OC: ɡool MC: ɦʷɑ 6 Attributions
  • nbell on carriage
   zhōng OC: tjoŋ MC: tɕi̯oŋ 5 Attributions

The current general word for a bell of any kind is zhōng 鐘/鍾. When hung up singly, it is called tè zhōng 特鐘, with round opening as in illustration SUN JI. Rhythmic instrument. Also, hung up in a series of tuned bells, in two rows of eight bells each. Note that these bells were already rare by Han times. [In use mainly from the Western Zhou till the Warring States.

  • nbell (loan for zhǒng 鐘) [We need to create a new lexeme character with the correct pronunciation. CH]
  • nadNsupplied with bells
   líng OC: ɡ-reeŋ MC: leŋ 3 Attributions

Líng 鈴 refers to a small bell with a handle at the top.

  • nvery small bell with handle at top, smaller even than duó 鐸.
   yǔ OC: ŋaʔ MC: ŋi̯ɤ 1 Attribution

Yǔ 敔 is a rare word referring to a bell in the shape of a crouching tiger which is beaten using a bamboo stick. Apparently, this bell was only struck towards the end of a musical piece. [Mentioned in the YIJI chapter of the SHANGSHU. Description of the shape dates from the SONG. For a Chinese antiquity, I have not found any archaeological or pictorial evidence.]

  • nancient percussion instrument syn. group ??
   zhù OC: tjuɡ MC: tɕuk 1 Attribution

Zhù 柷 refers in SHI to some kind of resonance box used in music and struck in the beginning of a musical piece.

  • nSHI: a kind of resonance box used in music
   sǔn OC: squnʔ MC: sʷin 1 Attribution
  • ncross-beam in a bell-frame; bell-stand
   jù OC: ɡlaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • ndrum or bell frame
   zhēng OC: tjeŋ MC: tɕiɛŋ 1 Attribution

Zhēng 鉦 is a small bell with a handle like a náo 鐃 but somewhat larger, and not held in the hand but set up. Used to order an army into retreat. (The gǔ 鼓 is used to order an army to attack.)

  • nhandbell with a handle
   xī OC: sleeɡ MC: sek 1 Attribution
  • nbell on horse's forehead
   bó OC: paaɡ MC: pɑk 1 Attribution

Bó 鎛refers to a kind of suspended bell which is similar to zhōng 鐘/鍾 but even larger. Bó 鎛 were suspended not in sets, but alone or in pairs. [UNGER 1995: 376; ill.: MUSIC 2000: 2-4]

  • na kind of suspended bell
   náo OC: mɢreew MC: ɳɣɛu 1 Attribution

Náo 鐃 small handbell with handle which is held in one hand and beaten with the other hand.

  • nsmallish handbell with a handle
   luán OC: b-roon MC: lʷɑn 1 Attribution

Luán 鸞 is a bell fixed on vehicles and knives which was supposed to make a sound like a luán-bird or phoenix.

  • nharness bell
歌鐘   gē zhōng OC: klaal tjoŋ MC: kɑ tɕi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPbell
犍椎   jiān chuí OC: kan ɡrlul MC: ki̯ɐn ɖi 1 Attribution
  • NP(py:jian1 chuí) 亦作犍槌。梵語的音譯。意為聲鳴。指寺院中的木魚、鍾、磬之類。
金口而木舌   jīn kǒu ér mù shé shé OC: krɯm khooʔ njɯ mooɡ sbljed MC: kim khu ȵɨ muk ʑiɛt 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]N=bell[bell] with metal outer ring and wooden clapper
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

Chuí 棰 refers to a metal or wooden stick with which to strike bells of any kind from the outside in order sound the bell.

  • nmetal stick with which to strike against a bell from the outside. Contrast duó 鐸.
磬 / 罄   qìng OC: kheeŋs MC: kheŋ qìng OC: kheeŋs MC: kheŋ 0 Attributions

Qìng 磬/罄 refers to music stones rather than bells, however, these "stones" could also be made of bronze. DELENDUM Qìng 磬/罄 refers to music stones rather than bells, however, these "stones" could also be made of bronze. DELENDUM

       yōng OC: k-loŋ MC: ji̯oŋ 0 Attributions
    • nlarge bell
       jù OC: ɡlaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
    • nZHUANG: bell in the shape of a wild beast (archeological evidence?)
       bó OC: baaɡ MC: bɑk 0 Attributions
    • nlarge bell 鏞
    錞于   chún yú OC: djun ɢʷra MC: dʑʷin ɦi̯o 0 Attributions

    Chún yú 錞 于 refers to a kind of bell.

    • NPkind of bell

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: