CREATURE  生物

LIVING THING.
BEAST
Taxonoymy

DEITYANIMALPLANT

See also

BEASTANIMAL

Kind Of

THING

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general term for any living creature of any kind is wù 物.

Modern Chinese Criteria

生物

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 7

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP : 41
  • n : 20
  • NP[adN] : 8
  • NPc : 5

Attributions by text

  • 祖堂集 : 25
  • 賢愚經 : 6
  • 管子 : 5
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 韓非子 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 翻譯名義集 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 春秋左傳 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

眾生   zhòng shēng OC: tjuŋs sraaŋ MC: tɕuŋ ʂɣaŋ 27 Attributions
  • NPthe multitude of living creatures; BUDDH: the multitude of sentient beings (this is the Buddhist standard term for animate beings; usually referring to human beings but basically also including animals and sometimes even vegetation); skr. sattva
  • NPreferentialBUDDH: sentient being (this is an extraordinary case where 眾生 is used referential and in the singular!); skr. sattva
  • NPpluralBUDDH: the multitude of sentient beings (contextually identifyable and specified) (this is the Buddhist standard term for animate beings; usually referring to human beings but basically also including animals and sometimes even vegetation); skr. sattva
  • NPcsentient being
  • NPsingulara sentient being; any sentient being; just an ordinary sentient being
  • NPindefiniteany sentient living creature; a sentient creature
   wù OC: mɯd MC: mi̯ut 13 Attributions

The general term for any living creature of any kind is wù 物.

  • n(kind of) living creature 百物; 天物 "the creatures of this world that are from Heaven"
有情   yǒu qíng OC: ɢʷɯʔ dzeŋ MC: ɦɨu dziɛŋ 8 Attributions
  • NP[adN]BUDDH: endowed with sensation > sentient being (as opposed to 無情 inanimate things) (this term for sattva was introduced by Xuánzàng 玄奘 (600-664), although the older term zhòngshēng 眾生 remained more popular; originally both terms were a translation of the same Sanskrit word but eventually yǒuqíng came to be used paricularily for creatures with mental activities, whereas zhòngshēng can be used more generally for 'living being', including plant life; the term yǒuqíng is also less neutral, since it gives also emphasis to the notion of qíng 情, i.e. that living beings (particularily human beings) are characterized by deluded mental activities); SANSKRIT sattva
  • VPiBUDDH: be endowed with sensation > be a sentient being (as opposed to 無情 be inanimate) (this term for sattva was introduced by Xuánzàng 玄奘 (600-664), although the older term zhòngshēng 眾生 remained more popular; originally both terms were a translation of the same Sanskrit word but eventually yǒuqíng came to be used paricularily for creatures with mental activities, whereas zhòngshēng can be used more generally for 'living being', including plant life; the term yǒuqíng is also less neutral, since it gives also emphasis to the notion of qíng 情, i.e. that living beings (particularily human beings) are characterized by deluded mental activities); SANSKRIT sattva
   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 6 Attributions
  • npluralliving being (often clearly including humans, but frequently indistinguishable from the examples collected under ANIMAL)
群品   qún pǐn OC: ɡlun phrɯmʔ MC: gi̯un phim 5 Attributions
  • NPindefiniteBUDDH: sentient beings (this is a widely used translation of skr. sattva)
群生   qún shēng OC: ɡlun sraaŋ MC: gi̯un ʂɣaŋ 4 Attributions
  • NPplaceBUDDH: the multitude of beings > sentient beings (more common is zhòngshēng 眾生); skr. sattva
生物   shēng wù OC: sraaŋ mɯd MC: ʂɣaŋ mi̯ut 2 Attributions
  • NPliving creatures
  • NPcolloquialliving creature (including plants and animals)
非人   fēi rén OC: pɯl njin MC: pɨi ȵin 2 Attributions
  • NPnon-humanBUDDH: non-human animate creatures
   qíng OC: dzeŋ MC: dziɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • nsubject=pluralBUDDH: those who have mental activity, those endowed the feelings > sentient beings
四生   sì shēng OC: plids sraaŋ MC: si ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: the four born ones > the four type of beings existing the Three Realms, san1jiè 三界 and Six Destinies, liùdào 六道 (these creatures are divided ino those being born from an egg (obivprous, luǎnshēng 卵生), born from the womb of mammals (viviparous, tāishēng 胎生), born from moisture (shīshēng 濕生), usually referring to insects the eggs of which are not easily detectable; born through transformation (huàshēng 化生), referring to gods and residents of hell, both of them being born based on their karma)
天物   tiān wù OC: lʰiin mɯd MC: then mi̯ut 1 Attribution
  • NPdefinitethe creatures of this world, which are from Heaven
恆沙   héng shā OC: ɡɯɯŋ sraal MC: ɦəŋ ʂɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPsubject=pluralBUDDH: those which are numerous like the Ganges River > the numerous creatures; the countless living beings
生者   shēng zhě OC: sraaŋ kljaʔ MC: ʂɣaŋ tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialliving creatures
異類   yì lèi OC: p-lɯɡs ruds MC: jɨ li 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialBUDDH: other categories > referring to non-human types of existence such as gods, demons, humgry ghosts, animals or residents of hell
群物   qún wù MC: -- mjut OC: -- mɯd 1 Attribution
  • NPpluraldefinite: all the various creatures (of the world)
   mìng OC: mɢreŋs MC: mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • nsubject=pluralthose living > creatures 眾命
化生   huà shēng OC: hŋʷraals sraaŋ MC: hɣɛ ʂɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: creatures born through transformation (such as gods and hell-dwellers who have been reborn based on their karma; see sìshēng 四生)
卵生   luǎn shēng OC: ɡ-roonʔ sraaŋ MC: lʷɑn ʂɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: creatues born from eggs (see sìshēng 四生)
濕生   shī shēng OC: qhljɯb sraaŋ MC: ɕip ʂɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: creatures born from moisture (often used for insects and similar animals with tiny eggs which are difficult to detect; see liùshēng 六生)
胎生   tāi shēng OC: lʰɯɯ sraaŋ MC: thəi ʂɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: creatures born from the womb (see sìshēng 四生)
受造者   shòu zào zhě OC: djuʔ sɡuuʔ kljaʔ MC: dʑɨu dzɑu tɕɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPcreature
一切眾生   yī qiè zhòng shēng OC: qliɡ snʰiids tjuŋs sraaŋ MC: ʔit tshei tɕuŋ ʂɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPpluralthe creatures of the world
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPpluraldefinite: all the various creatures (of the world)

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: