CONTRACT  合同

MUTUALLY PROMISE, TYPICALLY USING WRITING, TO ACT in a certain way.[[VERTRAG]]
AGREEMENTCOMMITMENTARRANGEMENTSETTLEMENTUNDERSTANDINGCOMPACTCOVENANTBONDDEALBARGAINLAW INDENTURE
Taxonoymy

TALLYALLIANCE

Kind Of

PROMISE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for a contract of any kind is yuē 約.

2. Méng 盟 refers to a momentous formal (typically written) contract or oath of allegiance betwen feudal lords confirmed by ritual blood sacrifice, although such oaths could occasionally be taken by humble individuals (bī rén 卑人 "persons of low status") in which case the day of the ritual was not recorded.

3. Shì 誓 is sometimes used in ancient texts to refer to a sworn covenant between individuals, but the word also refers to a personal oath. See OATH.

4. Quàn 券 and the somewhat more archaic qì 契 refers to the physical object which constitutes the written version of a contract or an agreement. See TALLY.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

TRADE 10.

契,分左右兩片,邊上刻齒,最早證明出賣、租賃、借貸、抵押等關係的憑證,從契刻相合的鋸齒稱之。

券,戰國前後證明出賣、租賃、借貸、抵押等關係的憑證,就其憑證性與約束性稱之。

傅別,中間書字半分的借貸憑證。

質,人口、牛馬等人畜買賣契據的專稱。

劑,古代兵器、珍異等物品買賣契據的專稱。

1. Méng 盟 are between feudal lords, shì 誓 can be between any respectable private individuals.

2. Méng 盟 involves the blood of sacrificial domestic animals, shì 誓 does not normally involve the use of sacrificial animals..

3. Méng 盟 involves invocation through the blood of sacrificial animals, and it is typically in red writing, while shì 誓 is by the use of invocation of the spirits through words only, inviting the gods to punish those who break the oath. Occasionally this can be accompanied by casting a jade object into the river.

4. Shì 誓 can be an oath sworn by one individual, whereas méng 盟 is always a covenant between different parties. See CONTRACT.

Zhan Jinsen 1991

Modern Chinese Criteria

合同

合約

契紙

契據

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

CONTRACT

foedus refers to a contract for security conducted with a view to securing mutual interests.

societas refers to an engagement to cvollaborate on some undertaking on the ground of mere agreement.

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 305

HUANG JINGUI 1995 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao 123

KOSELLECK 1972-97 Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe 6.901-954

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

BUNDESSCHWUR

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 420

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 778

盟,誓

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 38
  • vi2 : 16
  • vtoN : 16
  • NP : 12
  • n : 8
  • vtpost-.VtoN : 7
  • vi : 5
  • VPi2 : 4
  • NPab : 3
  • VPi : 3
  • vi2post.N1+N2 : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • vtoN{PLUR} : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • vtoS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 52
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 18
  • 韓非子 : 17
  • 管子 : 11
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 史記 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   méng OC: mraŋ MC: mɣaŋ 52 Attributions

Méng 盟 refers to a momentous formal (typically written) contract or oath of allegiance betwen feudal lords confirmed by ritual blood sacrifice, although such oaths could occasionally be taken by humble individuals (bī rén 卑人 "persons of low status") in which case the day of the ritual was not recorded.

  • nabactoath; the swearing of oaths of allegiance
  • nabtextformal diplomatic written and ritual agreement, oath of allegiance covenant; pact
  • vi2swear blood oath (of allegiance etc.); make a covenant; join a pact; make a treaty
  • vi2post.N1+N2X and Y entered a formal contract by swearing an oath
  • vtoNswear f formal oath of allegiance with
  • vtoNpreposed objectswear a formal oath of allegiance with
  • vtpost-.VtoNswear a formal oath of allegiance (of several subjects)
  • vtoN{PLUR}make a contract with
  • vt+prep+Nmake a contract with the Yellow River as the contractor
  • nabact(private) contract
  • vt1post.vt2oN1: prep N2N2=placemake an agreement with somebody at N2
   yuē OC: qplewɡ MC: ʔi̯ɐk 18 Attributions

The current general word for a contract of any kind is yuē 約.

  • nabcontract, formal agreement
  • viactenter into alliances
  • vtoNenter into an alliance with
  • vtpost-.VtoNhave an agreement with
   qì OC: khees MC: khei 7 Attributions

Quàn 券 and the somewhat more archaic qì 契 refers to the physical object which constitutes the written version of a contract or an agreement. See TALLY.

  • nbinding document of any kind, legal or contractual
  • viactenter an alliance, make a contract for cooperation
券契   quàn qì OC: khons khees MC: khi̯ɐn khei 5 Attributions
  • NPcontract; contracts
盟誓   méng shì OC: mraŋ ɡljeds MC: mɣaŋ dʑiɛi 5 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialsworn contracts, oaths of allegiance
  • VPiactmake sworn contracts of any kind
   yāo OC: qew MC: ʔiɛu 4 Attributions
  • nabtextagreement; treaty
  • vtoSmake an agreement to the effect that S
  • vtpost-.VtoNmake an agreement with N
同盟   tóng méng OC: looŋ mraŋ MC: duŋ mɣaŋ 4 Attributions
  • VPi2make a covenant
   quàn OC: khons MC: khi̯ɐn 3 Attributions

Quàn 券 and the somewhat more archaic qì 契 refers to the physical object which constitutes the written version of a contract or an agreement. See TALLY.

  • nbinding contractual document;
   gù OC: kaas MC: kuo̝ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNmake a firm alliance with
  • vt+prep+Nmaintain a close alliance with
   yǔ OC: k-laʔ MC: ji̯ɤ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNenter into an association or alliance with
詛盟   zǔ méng OC: skras mraŋ MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ mɣaŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialsworn contracts
  • VPiactenter a sworn contract
   shì OC: ɡljeds MC: dʑiɛi 2 Attributions

Shì 誓 is sometimes used in ancient texts to refer to a sworn covenant between individuals, but the word also refers to a personal oath. See OATH.

  • nabactsworn contract; declaration of allegiance
載書   zài shū OC: sɡlɯɯs qhlja MC: dzəi ɕi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • NPabtextcovenant
   zhǔ OC: tjoɡ MC: tɕi̯ok 1 Attribution
  • v[adN]indefiniteally; cooperating power
   zī OC: tse MC: tsiɛ 1 Attribution
  • ncontract
   lián OC: b-ren MC: liɛn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNlink up with, make diplomatic ties with
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution
  • vtoNally oneself with, become a loyal ally of
盟載   méng zài OC: mraŋ sɡlɯɯs MC: mɣaŋ dzəi 1 Attribution
  • NPtext of the contract
約契   yuē qì OC: qplewɡ khees MC: ʔi̯ɐk khei 1 Attribution
  • VPiactmake contracts of any kind
要盟   yāo méng OC: qew mraŋ MC: ʔiɛu mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactforced covenant; covenant entered under duress
   shū OC: qhlja MC: ɕi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • ncontract
   chēng OC: thjɯŋ MC: tɕhɨŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNto conTRACT a loan, to take up a loan
   yì OC: ŋrals MC: ŋiɛ 0 Attributions
  • nagreement in the name of justice/moral principles
許和   xǔ hé OC: hŋaʔ ɡool MC: hi̯ɤ ɦʷɑ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNenter into an agreement with

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: