ANIMAL  動物

CREATURE ABLE to FEEL AND MOVE.
Old Chinese Criteria

[ARCHAIC/CURRENT]

[[COMMON/RARE]]

[TECHNICAL-TERM/CURRENT-WORD]

1. Chóng 蟲 is sometimes referred to animals of any kind, and not only to insect-like creatures.

[GENERAL]

2. The current general word for an animal of any kind would appear to be qín shòu 禽獸, although this word definitely excludes snails, insects, snakes and the like.

[CURRENT], [GENERAL]

3. Niǎo shòu 鳥獸 refers specifically to all birds and beasts.

[SPECIFIC]

4. Wù 物 is sometimes used to refer to what in Christian parlance are "creatures" of any kind. See CREATURE

[ARCHAIC?], [GENERAL]; [[RARE]]

5. Dòng wù 動物 refers quite generally to all animals as opposed to plants and inanimate creatures, but the word is really a technical term and is rarely used.

[GENERAL], [TECHNICAL]; [[RARE]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

生物

動物

眾生

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 3.11

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 103

This is a concise and historical survey concentrating on classical antiquity and then the Christian impact. There are useful bibliographic references.

There is no ancient Greek category that corresponds to the modern "animal".

Augustine is crucial for the development of the notion of the animal not including that of humans.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ANIMAL

animal refers quite generally to any living creature, human or animal with the focus on its particular nature.

animans refers to living creatures of any kind in so far as they are alive rather than dead.

bellua refers to animals as devoid of rationality, generally as wild and threatening.

bestia refers to destructive wild animals.

fera refers to wild animals of the forst without special emphasis on their threatening or destructive nature.

pecus refers to animals as devoid of rationality, often to domestic animals.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

ANIMAL

QIAN YULIN 1996 中華古代文化辭典 Zhonghua gudai wenhua cidian 205-217

Basic ancient zoological terminology simply explained.

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.334

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.878

BESTIAIRE

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 10.1195

TIER

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

TIER

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 338ff

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.47.33

ANIMAL.BETE

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.242

DIVISIONES 1906 Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae B 64

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP{N1&N2} : 37
  • n : 14
  • NP : 7
  • v[adN] : 3
  • n{PRED} : 1
  • NPab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 孟子 : 12
  • 荀子 : 7
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 管子 : 6
  • 論衡 : 4
  • 尚書 : 4
  • 論語 : 3
  • 春秋左傳 : 3
  • 文子 : 3
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 韓非子 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 史記 : 1
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 五行 : 1

Words

禽獸   qín shòu OC: ɡrɯm qjus MC: gim ɕɨu 27 Attributions

The current general word for an animal of any kind would appear to be qín shòu 禽獸, although this word definitely excludes snails, insects, snakes and the like. [CURRENT], [GENERAL]

  • NP{N1&N2}nonreferentialbirds and beasts; a mere animal
  • NPabanimal-like nature
  • NPadNanimal-
鳥獸   niǎo shòu OC: ntɯɯwʔ qjus MC: teu ɕɨu 11 Attributions

Niǎo shòu 鳥獸 refers specifically to all birds and beasts. [SPECIFIC]

  • NP{N1&N2}nonreferentialbirds and beasts
   chóng OC: ɡrluŋ MC: ɖuŋ 8 Attributions

Chóng 蟲 is sometimes referred to animals of any kind, and not only to insect-like creatures. [GENERAL]

  • nanimals (general); the animal (of the season etc)
   wù OC: mɯd MC: mi̯ut 3 Attributions

Wù 物is sometimes used to refer to what in Christian parlance are "creatures" of any kind. See THING [ARCHAIC?], [GENERAL]; [[RARE]]

  • nnonreferentialliving creature, animals SW: 凡物無乳者{"animals without milk, generally speaker"
  • n{PRED}be a creature; be an animal
   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 3 Attributions
  • v[adN]living animal, creature =生物
   xì OC: qhɯds MC: hɨi 2 Attributions
  • nsacrificial animal
狗彘   gǒu zhì MC: kuwX drjejH OC: kooʔ deds 2 Attributions
  • NPanimals like dogs or pigs (typically in contrast to humans)
   xīng OC: seŋ MC: siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • nred animal (suitable for sacrifice)
毛物   máo wù OC: moow mɯd MC: mɑu mi̯ut 1 Attribution
  • NPanimal
穴者   xué zhě OC: ɢʷliiɡ kljaʔ MC: ɦet tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialcave-dwelling animals
   zǐ OC: sklɯʔ MC: tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • nyoung of animals
梧鼠   wú shǔ MC: ngu syoX OC: ŋaa qhjaʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPflying squirrel, standardly written 鼯鼠
三牲   sān shēng MC: sam sraeng OC: saam sraaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralthree sacrifical animals, suovetaurilia (pig, sheep, ox)
鳥鼠   niǎo diǎo shǔ MC: tewX syoX OC: ntɯɯwʔ qhjaʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPsmaller animals like birds and rodents
   máo OC: moow MC: mɑu 0 Attributions
  • nfurry or feathered animal (especially for sacrifice)
動物   dòng wù OC: dooŋʔ mɯd MC: duŋ mi̯ut 0 Attributions

Dòng wù 動物 refers quite generally to all animals as opposed to plants and inanimate creatures, but the word is really a technical term and is rarely used. [GENERAL], [TECHNICAL]; [[RARE]]

  • NPZHOULI: animal

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: