AXE  斧頭

TOOL OR WEAPON with a HANDLE and a BLADE, TYPICALLY for SPLITTING WOOD.
HATCHETCLEAVERTOMAHAWKADZEPOLEAXBROADAXBATTLE-AX

HANDLE

Kind Of

WEAPON

Old Chinese Criteria

[CEREMONIAL/PRACTICAL]

[[COMMON/RARE]]

[LARGE/SMALL]

[ELEVATED/INFORMAL]

1. The most current word for an axe is perhaps fǔ 斧, but the word refers specifically to an axe as in the illustration, used to split things with.

[SPECIFIC]; [COMMON+]

2. Jīn 斤 refers to an axe where the blade is at a right angle to the shaft, as in the illustration, and this axe would seem to be of use only for cutting down branches or small trees or bushes.

[SPECIFIC]; [[COMMON+]

3. Yuè 鉞 refers to a battle axe which came to be mostly used for ritual execution or ceremonial purposes.

[CEREMONIAL], [ELEVATED], [LARGE], [SPECIFIC]

4. Qī 戚 is a somewhat smaller variety of the yuè 鉞.

[CEREMONIAL], [ELEVATED], [SPECIFIC]

5. Qiāng 斨 refers to a fǔ 斧 -style axe with a square hole for the handle.

[SPECIFIC]

6. Zhǔ 欘 adze, refers to a carpenter 掇 or cooper 掇 tool, like an axe with the blade set at right angles to the handle and curving inwards towards it; used for cutting or slicing away the surface of wood.

[SPECIFIC]; [[RARE]]

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

ARCHITECTURE 28.

斧,伐木工具,銎為橢圓形之斧,後作斧子通稱。

斨,析木工具,銎為方形之斧。

斤,平木工具,即後代之 “ 錛 ” 。

銎,斤斧穿柄之處。

WARFARE 11. 劈砍兵器。斧,直刃之斧;斧類兵器總稱。

斤,橫刃之斧。

戉,刃闊而柄長之大斧,作軍權的象徵。

戚,刃部緊縮而細長之斧;亦用為舞具。

Modern Chinese Criteria

斧頭

斧子

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.25

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 239

Streitaxt:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 726

Beil:

The axe is commonly depicted in Han reliefs.

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 806

Streitaxt:

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 36

SUN JI 漢代無知文化資料圖說 25

BAECHTHOLD-STAEUBLI 1987 Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens 1.745

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 108A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 33
  • NP : 8
  • NP{N1&N2} : 5
  • nab : 1
  • vi : 1
  • nadV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 管子 : 18
  • 春秋左傳 : 6
  • 孟子 : 5
  • 毛詩 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 韓非子 : 2
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 荀子 : 1

Words

   fǔ OC: paʔ MC: pi̯o 10 Attributions

The most current word for an axe is perhaps fǔ 斧, but the word refers specifically to an axe as in the illustration, used to split things with. [SPECIFIC]; [COMMON+]

  • naxe with blade in the same direction as the handle (regarded as an aggressive weapon 假仇人斧)
  • nabfigurativea tool dangerous for something, a tool designed to damage something
  • nadVinstrumentwith an axe
  • vibe exposed to the axe
   jīn OC: kɯn MC: kɨn 8 Attributions

Jīn 斤 refers to an axe where the blade is at a right angle to the shaft, as in the illustration, and this axe would seem to be of use only for cutting down branches or small trees or bushes. [SPECIFIC]; [[COMMON+]

  • naxe with blade at right angle to the shaft. This is a standard carpenter's and wheelwright's tool. [ill.: SUN 1991: 7-9 - 7-10]
   yuè OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 5 Attributions

Yuè 鉞 refers to a battle axe which came to be mostly used for ritual execution or ceremonial purposes. UNGER 1995: 172 [CEREMONIAL], [ELEVATED], [LARGE], [SPECIFIC]

  • n(often symbolic and ceremonial) battle axe
斧斤   fǔ jīn OC: paʔ kɯn MC: pi̯o kɨn 5 Attributions
  • NP{N1&N2}nonreferentialaxes in general; axes of all sorts; axes
斤斧   jīn fǔ OC: kɯn paʔ MC: kɨn pi̯o 4 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialaxes of all kinds
斧鉞   fǔ yuè OC: paʔ ɢʷad MC: pi̯o ɦi̯ɐt 4 Attributions
  • NPexecutioner's axe
   qī OC: skhlɯɯwɡ MC: tshek 3 Attributions

Qī 戚 is a somewhat smaller variety of the yuè 鉞. [CEREMONIAL], [ELEVATED], [SPECIFIC]

  • nbattle axe
   qī OC: skhlɯɯwɡ MC: tshek 3 Attributions

Qī 戚 is a somewhat smaller variety of the yuè 鉞.

  • nbattle axe; ritual battle axe
   qiāng OC: skhaŋ MC: tshi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions

Qiāng 斨 refers to a fǔ 斧-style axe with a square hole for the handle. [SPECIFIC]

  • nfǔ 斧-style axe with a square hole for the handle
   zhú OC: toɡ MC: ʈi̯ok 2 Attributions

Zhǔ 欘 adze, refers to a carpenter's or cooper's tool, like an axe with the blade set at right angles to the handle and curving inwards towards it; used for cutting or slicing away the surface of wood. [SPECIFIC]; [[RARE]]

  • nadze, A carpenter's or cooper's tool, like an axe with the blade set at right angles to the handle and curving inwards towards it; used for cutting or slicing away the surface of wood. [Most similar to this description are the tools ill.: CHU 2000: pp. 443 ???]
   fū OC: pa MC: pi̯o 2 Attributions
  • naxe for cutting undergrowth
   yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • na kind of big axe
長斧   cháng fǔ OC: ɡrlaŋ paʔ MC: ɖi̯ɐŋ pi̯o 0 Attributions
  • NPWarring States and Han term for a battle axe [SUN 1991: 128; ill.: SUN 1991: 33-2

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: