YEAR  

TIME OF the SUN MOVING ROUND the EARTH.
Hypernym

TIMEABSTRACT OBJECT that all EVENTS ARE-IN. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

SEASONONE of FOUR PERIODS into which the YEAR is DIVIDED.

See also

AGEPERIOD a CREATURE has been LIVE:alive in the PAST. HARVESTGRAIN, FRUITS ETC. REAPED in AUTUMN.

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most current general word for the year is the basically agricultural nián 年. This word can refer to the years of age as well as to the time-span of a year as such. After a number word nián 年 always refers to a number of years as such and not to a person's age.

2. Suì 歲, named after the star Juppiter, can refer to years in general, but after a number word suì 歲 typically refers to years of age and not to number of years as such. (Cf. 年十三歲 )This term is astronomical in origin and defines the year primarily in terms of the revolutions of the planets.

3. Zǎi 載, probably named after the recurrent period of growth (cái 才 ) refers quite generally to the length of a year as such, and never to years of age.

4. Sì 祀 is an archaic periphrastic way of referring to the year as defined by the annual sacrifices.

5. Qiū 秋, more rarely and later also chūn 春 are occasionally used in elevated stylistic contexts to refer to a year.

6. Chūn qiū 春秋 refers specifically to years of age.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

ASTRONOMY 24. 表示 “ 年 ” 的計時單位。

歲,從 “ 歲星 ” 得名,夏代喜用 “ 歲 ” 。

祀,從古代祭祀得名,商代喜用 “ 祀 ” 。

年,從農業生產得名,周代喜用 “ 年 ” 。

載,從自然界的演變規律得名,唐虞時喜用 “ 載 ” 。

傳世文獻中,以 “ 年 ” 、 “ 歲 ” 最為常見, “ 載 ” 次之, “ 祀 ” 則最少。

1. Zhōng nián 終年 "for years on end; one's whole life", zhōng suì 終歲 "all year round".

Zǎi 載 is said by Tong Zhihe to belong originally to the world of shepherding, nián 年 to the world of agriculture and harvest, sì 祀 to the world of rituals, suì 歲 belongs to calendrical science and astronomy.

BHT: 或言歲,

或言載,

或言年何?

Modern Chinese Criteria

年份

年頭兒

年度

春秋

星霜

寒暑

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 14.73

  • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 30

  • 論衡同義詞研究 ( LUNHENG TONGYI 2004) p. 23

  • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 344

  • "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China" ( UNGER SACH) p.

    JAHRESZAEHLUNG

  • 古辭辨 Gu ci bian ( WANG FENGYANG 1993) p. 8

  • 古辭辨 Gu ci bian ( WANG FENGYANG 1993) p. 8

  • Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages ( DE VAAN 2008) p.

    annus 'year' [m. o] (Naev.+)

    Derivatives: annuus 'yearly' (PI.+), annalis 'annual' (Varro+), anniculus [adj.] 'one

    year old, yearling' (Cato+), anndna 'produce, supply, food, corn' (P1.+), annosus 'full

    of years, aged' (Lab.+); perennis 'that continues the year through, constant' (P1.+);

    biennium 'period of two years' (P1.+).

  • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.336.300

    AN.ANNEE

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.231

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 16

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 24
  • npost-V{NUM}.postadV : 5
  • nadV : 3
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • ncpost-V1{NUM}.postV2 : 1
  • n.red : 1
  • NP : 1
  • NPadS1.postS2 : 1
  • ncpost-V{NUM} : 1
  • npostNpr : 1
  • NP{N1&N2} : 1
  • NPadS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 說苑 : 8
  • 史記 : 7
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 賢愚經 : 4
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 天中記 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1

Words

   suì OC: sqʷads MC: siɛi 15 Attributions

Suì 歲 , named after the star Juppiter, can refer to years in general, but after a number word suì 歲 typically refers to years of age and not to number of years as such. This term is astronomical in origin and defines the year primarily in terms of the revolutions of the planets.

  • n.red:adSREDUP: year after year
  • nyear; year(s of age); age sān shí suì 三十歲 "thirty years of age", NOT normally in post-archaic Warring States texts: "for thirty years" 
  • ngeneralisedlong period of time, years (often with an attribute with respect to common prosperity etc. 樂歲)
  • nadVtimeper year, every year; once a year; year after year
  • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-Nclassifier for years of age 歲"X years old"
  • nadS(During the X) year
  • nab.post-Nthe year of the event N
  • npost-Vyear
  • ncpost-V{NUM}NUM years
  • ncpost-V1{NUM}.postV2be V2ing for NUM years
   nián OC: niin MC: nen 11 Attributions

The most current general word for the year is the basically agricultural nián 年. This word can refer to the years of age as well as to the time-span of a year as such. After a number word nián 年 always refers to a number of years as such and not to a person's age.

  • nyear; years of age; age sān shí nián 三十年 "thirty years", NOT: "thirty years old". Nián sān shí 年三十 "thirty years old" and "for thirty years".
  • nderivedlong period of time; years (often with an attribute concerning the common prosperity etc. 凶年)
  • npostNprera of reign
  • nadNBuddhist: of the same entrance year (in a school or monastery) 年兄
  • n.redyear in and year out
  • npost-V{NUM}.postadV
  • npost-V{NUM}.postadVfor V years
   zǎi OC: skɯɯʔ MC: tsəi 8 Attributions

Zǎi 載 , probably named after the recurrent period of growth (cái 才) refers quite generally to the length of a year as such, and never to years of age.

  • nyear, (number of years) something has lasted
年歲   nián suì OC: niin sqʷads MC: nen siɛi 4 Attributions

An abstract general word for time as such is rì yuè日月 or nián suì 年歲.

  • NPab{N1=N2}nonreferentialtime
  • NPabtimeseveral years in a row 積有年歲
   sì OC: sɢlɯʔ MC: zɨ 2 Attributions

Sì 祀 is an archaic periphrastic way of referring to the year as defined by the annual sacrifices.

  • narchaic, rare, SHU: year
春秋   chūn qiū OC: thjun tshiw MC: tɕhʷin tshɨu 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1&N2}ZGC: years of age
期年   jī nián OC: kɯ niin MC: kɨ nen 1 Attribution
  • NPadSafter one year
  • NPpostadVafter a year
元年   yuán nián MC: ngjwon nen OC: ŋɡon niin 1 Attribution
  • NPfirst year of a reign period
朞年   jī nián MC: ki nen OC: kɯ niin 1 Attribution
  • NPadS1.postS2derived=期年 after a year
   chūn OC: thjun MC: tɕhʷin 0 Attributions

Qiū 秋, more rarely and later also chūn 春 are occasionally used in elevated stylistic contexts to refer to a year.

  • nyear
茲 / 滋   zī OC: sɯ MC: tsɨ zī OC: tsɯ MC: tsɨ 0 Attributions
  • npost-Han: (agricultural) year
   qiū OC: tshiw MC: tshɨu 0 Attributions

Qiū 秋, more rarely and later also chūn 春 are occasionally used in elevated stylistic contexts to refer to a year.

  • nSHI: year
   rěn OC: nɡljɯmʔ MC: ȵim 0 Attributions
  • nyear
   shuāng OC: sqraŋ MC: ʂi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • npoetic: frost-seasons> year
   zhōng OC: tjuŋ MC: tɕuŋ 0 Attributions
  • ncycle of twelve years
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPfirst year of a reign period

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: