ARRIVE  抵達

REACH a PLACE one was INTENDING to GO-TO. [NB: THE DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN ARRIVE AND REACH ARE NOT PROPERLY IMPLEMENTED IN THE ATTRIBUTIONS. CHECK THESE!]
Taxonoymy

COME

Antonymy

GO ASTRAYLEAVE

See also

REACHREACH

Kind Of

REACH

Old Chinese Criteria

[ACTIVITY/STATE]

[COMMON/RARE]

[DIFFICULT/EASY]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[PROCESS/RESULT]

1. The general current word is zhì 至, and the word refers to the process of going somewhere with the final result (sometimes achieved with difficulty) of getting there.

[GENERAL]; [COMMON]

2. Dào 到 refers specifically to the reaching of a destination with no recognisable tendency to focus on the difficulty of getting there.

[LITERAL]; [RARE]

3. Jí 及 refers to the point of literal arrival, but the word is in practice often hard to distinguish in meaning from zhì 至.

[LITERAL]; [COMMON]

4. Zhì 致 "reach as far as" sometimes emphasises the difficulty of the task of reaching, but this word too is often hard to distinguish in meaning from 至 as defined above when it means "arrive".

[DIFFICULT!], [PROCESS!]

5. Tōng 通 emphasises the absence of impediments or hindrances in the passage towards a certain place and it refers to the general ability to get through.

[STATE]

6. Dá 達 is the result of tōng 通 "having unimpeded access to" and describes the successful arrival at a destination.

[RESULT]

7. Dǐ 抵 emphasises the arriving as the end of a complete itininerary with a beginning and an end.

[PROCESS]

Modern Chinese Criteria

到達

抵達

達到

進抵

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 10.55

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 7

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 116

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1435

通,達

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 70

1. WL claim that da4o 到 never has an omitted object. This is not borne out by the fact.

2. There is a wide range of syntactic and semantic distinctions between da4o 到 and zhi4 至 which WL fails to note.

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 82

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 170
  • vt(oN) : 49
  • vt+prep+N : 37
  • VPtoN : 22
  • vt[oN] : 15
  • VPt[oN] : 7
  • vi : 4
  • vt+V[0] : 4
  • VPt(oN) : 3
  • vt0oN.adS : 2
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 2
  • vt0oS : 2
  • vt[0]oN.postadV : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
  • NP[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 129
  • 荀子 : 20
  • 韓非子 : 20
  • 說苑 : 18
  • 史記 : 15
  • 孟子 : 14
  • 百喻經 : 12
  • 論語 : 10
  • 論衡 : 10
  • 賢愚經 : 10
  • 禮記 : 8
  • 呂氏春秋 : 8
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 8
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 鶡冠子 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   jí OC: ɡrɯb MC: gip 120 Attributions

Jí 及 refers to the point of literal arrival, but the word is in practice often hard to distinguish in meaning from zhì 至. [LITERAL]; [COMMON]

  • vt[0]oN.postadVuntil, upto (a place)
  • vt+prep+Nget as far as
  • vt+V[0]figurativeget to the point of V-ing
  • vtoNarrive at (a place); surprisingly often introducing subjectless subordinate temporal clause as a vtadS: (when the subject) got to (a place); get as far as; get close to, get close enough to
  • vtoNfigurativeget to (a predicament) [see REACH]
  • vtoNN=physicalreach physically, get in touch with; get as far as (of physical objects rather than persons)
   zhì OC: kljiɡs MC: tɕi 107 Attributions

The general current word is zhì 至, and the word refers to the process of going somewhere with the final result (sometimes achieved with difficulty) of getting there. [GENERAL]; [COMMON]

  • vifigurative(e.g. of the night) come, arrive
  • vt(oN)arrive on the scene; turn up; move in to take action; come to join
  • vt(oN)subj=nonhumanto reach (a contextually determinate stage or place)
  • vt[oN]arrive at one's goal; arrive at the place where the speaker is
  • vt+prep+N.postadVto the place N
  • vt+prep+Nfigurativearrive at (an intellectual point)
  • vt+prep+Nperfectivearrive at, turn up; get to (a place);
  • vt+V[0]go so far as to VP, get to the point of; approach the ultimate point.
  • vtoNperfectivearrive at, turn up at; get to (a place); abstract: advance to the position of; attain to
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2causativeto cause something contextually determinate N1 to reach (somebody N2); to extend something contextually determinate N1 (to somebody N2)
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2cause N1 to reach as far as N2
  • vt(oN)arrive at the contextually determinate place N
來至   lái zhì OC: m-rɯɯ kljiɡs MC: ləi tɕi 30 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)resultativecome to the contextually determinate place
  • VPt[oN]come here; come to one
  • VPt[oN]figurativecome to one
  • VPtoNresultativearrive at (a place); come to (a place)
   dào OC: k-laaws MC: tɑu 24 Attributions

Dào 到 refers specifically to the reaching of a destination with no recognisable tendency to focus on the difficulty of getting there. [LITERAL]; [RARE]

  • vt(oN)arrive at the determinate place
  • vt[oN](of a time) arrive
  • vt+prep+Narrive
  • vt+prep+Nfigurativeget to
  • vtoNmainly Han: arrive at, come to
   zhì OC: k-liɡs MC: ʈi 12 Attributions

Zhì 致 sometimes emphasises the difficulty of the task of reaching, but this word too is often hard to distinguish in meaning from 至 as defined above when it means "arrive". [DIFFICULT!], [PROCESS!]

  • vt(oN)get to the contextually determinate place
  • vt+prep+Nreach as far as
  • vtoNperfectivemanage to reach, manage to get to 致遠"manage to get a long way"
  • vttoN1.+N2causativecause (someone N1) to arrive at or go to (a place N2)
  • vt[oN]= 至, arrive
   dá OC: daad MC: dɑt 5 Attributions

Dá 達 is the result of tōng 通 "having unimpeded access to" and describes the successful arrival at a destination. [RESULT]

  • vt+prep+Nperfectiveget through to (a place); reach (a place)
  • vtoNfigurativeattain to
  • vtoNperfectiveget through to
   dǐ OC: tiilʔ MC: tei 4 Attributions

Dǐ 抵 emphasises the arriving as the end of a complete itininerary with a beginning and an end. [PROCESS]

  • vtoNget to[sometimes also involuntary 'arrival' 'bang (one's head)' ][CA]
  • vtoNfigurativereach; get to produce
   lín OC: b-rɯm MC: lim 4 Attributions
  • vt0oN.adSwhen it comes to the time of N
  • vtoNcome along to
   tōng OC: kh-looŋ MC: thuŋ 4 Attributions

Tōng 通 emphasises the absence of impediments or hindrances in the passage towards a certain place and it refers to the general ability to get through. [PROCESS]

  • viget through (of a way, as opposed to sè 塞 "be blocked");
  • vt(oN)get through to a contextually determinate place
  • vtoNcausativecause to arrive, cause to get through; allow to pass through
   shì OC: djads MC: dʑiɛi 2 Attributions
  • vt0oSreach; come to (according to Karlgren this is a loan character) ????
   zhēn OC: tsrin MC: ʈʂin 2 Attributions
  • vt[oN]arrive, reach
   fù OC: bos MC: bi̯o 2 Attributions
  • vt[oN]arrive
   fǎng OC: paŋʔ MC: pi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vt+prep+NN=placearrive? 趙注: 放,至也。
去至   qù zhì OC: khas kljiɡs MC: khi̯ɤ tɕi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNgo to
及到   jí dào OC: ɡrɯb k-laaws MC: gip tɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN](e.g. of opportunities etc) arrive, come up
新到   xīn dào OC: siŋ k-laaws MC: sin tɑu 1 Attribution
  • NP[adN]the one who newly arrived > newcomer
   jiè OC: krɯɯds MC: kɣɛi 0 Attributions
  • vt(oN)omarrive (at a contextually determinate place)
   chàng OC: khrlaŋs MC: ʈhi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadNpenetrating, hence: unimpeded
  • vtoNpenetrate to
   suì OC: sɢluds MC: zi 0 Attributions
  • vt(oN)actarrive successfully

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: