APPROPRIATE  適宜

EXCELLENT in a DEFINED SITUATION OR FOR a DEFINED NEED.
SUITABLEPROPERFITTINGAPTRIGHTRELEVANTPERTINENTAPPOSITECONVENIENTOPPORTUNESEEMLYBEFITTING
Old Chinese Criteria

[DYNAMIC/STATIC]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[LASTING/TRANSITORY]

[OBJECTIVE/SUBJECTIVE]

1. The current general word for appropriateness of any kind is yí 宜 (ant.* fáng 妨 "contravene standards, be inappropriate").

[GENERAL]

2. Kě 可 refers primarily to what is subjectively or interpersonally-subjectively i.e. socially acceptable.

[SUBJECTIVE]

3. Shì 是 (ant. fēi 非 "what does not deserve intellectual or moral approval") refers primarily to what is right and deserving of intellectual and/or moral approval.

[MORAL]

4. Shì 適 and dàng 當 (both ant. guāi 乖 "in conflict with certain prevailing circumstances") refer to what is objectively fitting in certain circumstances.

[OBJECTIVE], [TRANSITORY]

5. Shùn 順 (ant. nì 逆 "in conflict with the natural flow of events") refers to action that fits naturally and painlessly into a certain flow of events or into a certain constellation.

[DYNAMIC]

6. Qí 其 is a modal particle indicating weakly and abstractly that something should probably be done or happen. The word is thus marginal in this group. See SHOULD

[padV]

Modern Chinese Criteria

適宜

合適

適合

恰當

適當

得當

切當

允當

確當

精當

相當

的當

愜當

適宜

合宜

相宜

得宜

正好

確切

妥切

貼切

妥帖

熨帖

平妥

對頭

對路

得體

對勁 (coll) can refer to something being (pleasingly) normal.

方便

適度

合度

適量

適中

妥為 "properly"

有分寸

恰如其分

恰到好處

適可而止

哀而不傷 (prov) refers proverbially to lack of excess.

不為已甚

在刀口上

至當不易

初寫黃庭

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. Acceptability or appropriateness may be primarily construed as a feature inherent in things as such (shì 是 ), or it may be construed as a feature attributed subjectively by a judge (kě 可 ).

2. Acceptability or appropriateness may be primarily construed as constituted by a voluntary act of acceptance (kě 可 ), or it may be primarily construed as constituted by an inherent feature of whatever is said to be acceptable (shì 是 ).

3. Acceptability or appropriateness may be construed as essentially context-free and permanent (shì 是 ), or it may be construed as primarily contextual and tied to a certain temporal or logical environment (kě 可 ).

4. When used in putative senses, the acceptance may be performative ( 洍 hereby approve �, kě 可 ), or it may be ordinarily descriptive ( 洍 consider as right � shì 是 ).

5. Some words primarily describe a physical fit (dāng 當 (See however dàng 當 TRUE), shì 適 ); other words are primarily abstract (yí 宜, shì 是, kě 可 ).

6. Some words are highly restricted and grammaticalised (qí 其 ) and refer to the appropriateness of actions. jiang

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.943

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

APPROPRIATE

idoneus refers to the passive appropriateness of a thing to be used in a certain way.

aptus refers to the actively construed aptness or fitness of a person or a thing to perform a certain task.

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 299

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 8.1036

RICHTIGKEIT

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO.179

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 135
  • npro.adN : 46
  • vtoN : 23
  • nab : 23
  • VPi : 19
  • NPab{Nab1&Nab2} : 17
  • vt[oN] : 7
  • vi+S{SUBJ} : 6
  • vadN : 5
  • vt prep N : 4
  • vi2 : 4
  • v[adN] : 4
  • VPt0+V[0] : 3
  • VPt+V[0] : 3
  • vi+NPab{S.PRED} : 3
  • nadN : 3
  • VPadV : 3
  • vi.postS{SUBJ} : 2
  • vt[0]+V[0] : 2
  • vadV : 2
  • vpostadV : 1
  • NP : 1
  • vt+V[0] : 1
  • NPab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 67
  • 春秋左傳 : 53
  • 孟子 : 26
  • 呂氏春秋 : 24
  • 說苑 : 24
  • 論語 : 24
  • 荀子 : 22
  • 毛詩 : 9
  • 孝經 : 8
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 5
  • 法言 : 5
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 5
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 論衡 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 公孫龍子 : 3
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
  • 類說 : 2
  • 太平經 : 2
  • 長短經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

   kě OC: khlaalʔ MC: khɑ 65 Attributions

Kě 可 refers primarily to what is subjectively or interpersonally-subjectively i.e. socially acceptable. [SUBJECTIVE]

  • nabfeatureadvisability; admissibility; acceptability; suitability 君問可
  • vadNacceptable; advisable
  • visubject=actionbe advisable; be acceptable; be agreeable (to do something); be commendable; be right; appropriate
  • visubject=human(of persons) be acceptable; be advisable
  • vt[0]+V[0]one may appropriately V
  • vadVapproximately
   yí OC: ŋɡral MC: ŋiɛ 59 Attributions

The current general word for appropriateness of any kind is yí 宜 (ant.* fáng 妨 "contravene standards, be inappropriate"). [GENERAL]

  • nabstativesuitability; appropriateness
  • nabsubjectwhat is appropriate and helpful
  • vi+S{SUBJ}it is fitting that S 宜吾不得見也
  • vibe appropriate, be fitting, be suitable
  • vt+prep+Nstativebe fitting for N
  • vt+V[0]be appropriate to VERB; it is suitable to VERB
  • vtoNbe convenient for, fit into, be fit for
  • vi.postS{SUBJ}that S is appropriate
  • vi+NPab{S.PRED}with postposed subject: be fitting
  • vtoNoptativemay the subject befit, be of the appropriate kind for
  • vtoNcausativecause to act appropriately
  • vt prep Nbe appropriate for
  • vi.postNPab{S}{SUBJECT}be appropriate, be only right and proper
  • vadNappropriate, fitting, suitable
  • v[adN]what is appropriate
  • vtoNhandle N appropriately 君子宜之
   qí OC: ɡɯ MC: gɨ 46 Attributions

Qí 其 is a modal particle indicating weakly and abstractly that something should probably be done or happen. The word is thus marginal in this group. See SHOULD [padV]

  • npro.adNthe right kind of, the appropriate, the relevant, the suitable 其人
   dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 23 Attributions

Shì 適 and dàng 當 (both ant. guāi 乖 "in conflict with certain prevailing circumstances") refer to what is objectively fitting in certain circumstances. [OBJECTIVE], [TRANSITORY]

  • v[adN]subjectwhat is apposite; what is adequate
  • vadNadequate, justified; positive
  • vibe appropriate; be to the point; be the right thing in the right place
  • vt[oN]actget things right
  • vtoNactadjust oneself properly to; live up to
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe deemed appropriate and right, be deemed adequate
  • vtoNstativematch; correspond to; fit with;
  • vpostadVappropriately, right (as in 君子注錯之當)
   shì OC: ɡljeʔ MC: dʑiɛ 21 Attributions

Shì 是 (ant. fēi 非 "what does not deserve intellectual or moral approval") refers primarily to what is right and deserving of intellectual and/or moral approval. [MORAL]

  • nabadhocmoral correctness; rightness
  • nabconceptrightness (as in: the rights and wrongs 是非)
  • nabmoralwhat is morally right ZHUANG?
  • vi(of things) be morally right; be quite appropriate to the occasion
  • visubject=human(of persons) be in the right, have it right; be of the right sort; be morally right
  • vtoNputativeapprove, consider as right See ASSENT
   shùn OC: ɢjuns MC: ʑʷin 20 Attributions

Shùn 順 (ant. nì 逆 "in conflict with the natural flow of events") refers to action that fits naturally and painlessly into a certain flow of events or into a certain constellation. [DYNAMIC]

  • v[adN]N=nonhuwhat is in accordance with the normal flow of things, what is normal; what is reasonable/sensible
  • vibe smooth, normal, and proper; follow a smooth natural course; be in accordance with what should be; be reasonable
  • nabactnatural appropriateness in action
  • vt[oN]stativebe in accordance [with proper practice and ritual requirements]
是非   shì fēi OC: ɡljeʔ pɯl MC: dʑiɛ pɨi 18 Attributions
  • NPab{Nab1&Nab2}featurerightness or otherwise, appropriateness or otherwise; right and wrong
  • NPrightness or otherwise
此之謂   cǐ zhī wèi MC: tshjeX tsyi hjw+jH OC: tsheʔ kljɯ ɢuds 18 Attributions
  • VPiThis (preceding text) is applicable to the present case/example; This applies to the above
   shì OC: qljeɡ MC: ɕiɛk 6 Attributions

Shì 適 and dàng 當 (both ant. guāi 乖 "in conflict with certain prevailing circumstances") refer to what is objectively fitting in certain circumstances. [OBJECTIVE], [TRANSITORY]

  • nabeventappropriate rhythm (of the seasons)
  • vadVappropriately; at the appropriate points
  • vimiddle voicebe appropriate, be well adjusted
  • vtoNcausativecause to be properly adjusted
可以   kě yǐ OC: khlaalʔ k-lɯʔ MC: khɑ jɨ 6 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]to be proper to V; to be acceptable to V
  • VPt0+V[0]impersonalIt is acceptable (for anyone) to V; It is appropriate (for anyone) to V
   zhōng OC: krluŋ MC: ʈuŋ 5 Attributions
  • vibe appropriate, be proper, be the right way 刑罰不中 "are not fitting".
   qí OC: dziil MC: dzei 4 Attributions
  • vibe well alligned
  • vtoNto harmonise, to bring into balance, to tune properly; bring in line; keep perfectly in line
  • vtoNpassivebe streamlined, be brought in line
  • vi2try to be well-aligned, aim to be well-attuned
隨宜   suí yí OC: sɢlol ŋɡral MC: ziɛ ŋiɛ 4 Attributions
  • VPadVfollowing what is appropriate> as the situation demands
  • VPiactact appropriately
   yí OC: ŋral MC: ŋiɛ 3 Attributions
  • nadNproper (target)
   fú OC: bo MC: bi̯o 3 Attributions
  • vtoNto fit together, to match
  • vtoNpassivebe fitted together, get matched
   zhòng OC: krluŋs MC: ʈuŋ 3 Attributions
  • viappropriate
  • vadNthe appropriate person
   zhòng OC: krluŋs MC: ʈuŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNstativefit into
便   biàn OC: bens MC: biɛn 2 Attributions
  • vibe the appropriate thing to do
  • vt+prep+Nstativebe appropriate for/to
  • vadNappropriate
   chèng OC: thjɯŋs MC: tɕhɨŋ 2 Attributions
  • vibe fitting for the occasion (vt(oN)???)
   yòng OC: k-loŋs MC: ji̯oŋ 2 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nstativebe appropriate for time N
   gě OC: klaalʔ MC: kɑ 1 Attribution
  • vipre-classical loan for 可
   chóu OC: ɡju MC: dʑɨu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativecause to be fitting ?????
參同   cān tóng OC: tshuum looŋ MC: tshəm duŋ 1 Attribution
  • visubject=pluralfit together properly, be properly adjusted to each other
當否   dāng fǒu OC: taaŋ pɯʔ MC: tɑŋ pɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPabappropriateness
酬類   chóu lèi OC: ɡju ruds MC: dʑɨu li 1 Attribution
  • NPappropriate kind of person
   huò MC: hweak OC: ɢʷreeɡ 1 Attribution
  • virare (SHI): appropriate, proper, in accordance with ritual
   yuán OC: ŋɡon MC: ŋi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
  • vadNpropitious, ritually appropriate
得體   dé tǐ OC: tɯɯɡ rʰiiʔ MC: tək thei 0 Attributions
  • VPibe appropriate
端正   duān zhèng OC: toon tjeŋs MC: tʷɑn tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPadNproper, appropiate
  • VPibe proper as it should be
   hǎo OC: qhuuʔ MC: hɑu 0 Attributions
  • v-Vbe good/appropriate for V-ing
   yì OC: ŋrals MC: ŋiɛ 0 Attributions
  • vibe morally appropriate, be right and proper
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPiThis (preceding text) is applicable to the present case/example

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: