BROTHER  兄弟

MALE SIBLING.
Antonymy

SISTER

See also

SISTER

Kind Of

SIBLING

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard collective term for brothers is xiōng dì 兄弟.

2. Xiōng 兄 can refer to the eldest brother as the head of his own generation (explicitly bó xiōng 伯兄 ), but it word often refers more generally to elder brothers, including those who are not the heir in the clan.

3. Dì 弟 refers to the younger brothers, and never specifically to the youngest.

4. Zōng zǐ 宗子 is a specific, formal, and ritual term for the eldest brother and heir in a family, typically after the death of whom he succeeds. See HEIR.

5. Zhòng 仲 refers to the next-eldest or second-eldest brother.

6. Bó 伯/霸 is the technical term for the eldest brother, and this word is sometimes expanded to bó xiōng 伯兄.

7. Jì 季 refers to the last-born brother or sister.

8. Kūn dì 昆弟 refers to brothers in general, but there is a pervasive doubt whether it does not also include the notion of cousins. See COUSIN.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

HUMAN AFFAIRS 14. 哥哥。

兄,通稱。

長,代指長兄,可用作狀語,表示對同輩男子敬重的態度。

伯,由排行老大而代指大哥,常用作表字。

昆,方言詞。

Modern Chinese Criteria

兄長

哥哥

阿哥

長兄

大兄

大哥

伯兄

伯氏

令兄

尊兄

家兄

胞兄

弟弟

兄弟

阿弟

仲氏

令弟

介弟

賢棣

仁棣

舍弟

兄弟

兄台

弟兄

手足

胞弟

哥兒

昆季

昆仲

昆弟

雁行 yànháng refers to brothers in the plural, as a series.

棠棣

棣華

棣鄂

哥兒倆 (coll) refers to brothers

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 2.44

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 347

237. Sic lib. Etymolog. IX, cap. 6.

-- Ex eodem... Ex eod. lib. citato videtur legendum [col. 35C] ex eadem matre, non patre, et infra: est enim germanus ex eadem genitrice, non ex eodem germine manans. Alioqui sibi contrarius Isidorus his duobus locis, et Serv., unde sumpsit, ad illud V Aen.: Haec germanus Erix.

Ibid. Vat., ex eodem mare et matre. [BREV.]

]

237. Inter Fratrem et germanum. Fratres dicuntur, qui ex eodem patre nascuntur, et non ex eadem matre. Qui vero 32 ex eodem patre et matre [ Al., [col. 35A] eadem matre et patre], germani appellantur. Et est germanus ex eadem genitrice, vel ex eodem germine manans.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

FRATER

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

GEBURTSRANG

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no. 29

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 60

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms no. 29

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 72A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n[post-N] : 42
  • NP : 34
  • NP[post-N] : 14
  • nadV : 6
  • n(post-N) : 5
  • n : 5
  • NPab : 5
  • NPpost-N : 4
  • NP(post-N) : 3
  • NPadN : 3
  • npost-N : 2
  • vi : 2
  • NP=Npr : 2
  • NP{PRED} : 2
  • VPi : 2
  • NP1-NP2 : 1
  • ncc : 1
  • nadN : 1
  • n[post-N.]+Npr : 1
  • NPadV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 禮記 : 18
  • 春秋左傳 : 18
  • 論語 : 13
  • 孟子 : 13
  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 史記 : 9
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 7
  • 墨子 : 6
  • 孝經 : 6
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 列子 : 5
  • 毛詩 : 5
  • 典論一卷 : 4
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 管子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1

Words

   xiōng OC: qhʷraŋ MC: hɣaŋ 31 Attributions

Xiōng 兄 regularly refers to the eldest brother as the head of his own generation (explicitly bó xiōng 伯兄), but the word often refers more generally to elder brothers, including those who are not the heir in the clan.

  • n[post-N]elder brother; the eldest brother
  • n[post-N]nonreferentialan eldest brother in general
  • n[post-N]pluralelder brothers
  • n[post-N]singulareldest brother, male of the eldest brother's status (note that 其兄 is "his elder brother" and not specifically "his eldest brother".
  • nadVreference=objectlike an eldest brother
  • nccelder brother 三兄,諸兄,庶兄
  • viactact as an elder brother should
  • n(post-N)the elder brother of the contextually determinate N
兄弟   xiōng dì OC: qhʷraŋ liilʔ MC: hɣaŋ dei 30 Attributions

elder brothers and younger brothers. The standard collective term for brothers is xiōng dì 兄弟.

  • NP[post-N]one's brothers
  • NP[post-N]reflexiveone's brothers
  • NPfigurative"things/persons related to each other like brothers"
  • NPpluralelder and younger brothers
  • NPsingularbrother
  • NPabsocialthe relationship between eldest and younger brothers
  • NPadNfraternal; concerning brotherhood
  • VPihave brotherly relations
  • VPtoNmutualhave sbling relations with
  • NP{PRED}figurativebe "brothers"
  • NP(post-N)the brothers of the contextually determinate N
  • NPadNfigurative"brotherly"; of "brotherly" relation to N
昆弟   kūn dì OC: kuun liilʔ MC: kuo̝n dei 30 Attributions

Kūn dì 昆弟 refers to brothers in general, but there is a pervasive doubt whether it does not also include the notion of cousins. See COUSIN.

  • NPfigurative"brother"
  • NPnonreferentiala brother; brothers; elder and younger brothers, the flock of brothers
  • NPpluralbrothers
  • NPsingularbrother
  • NPabrelations between brothers (not necessarily between the eldest and the others)
  • NPadVas brothers; one brother against the other
  • NP1-NP2N2=amountbrothers in amount of NP2 people
   dì OC: liilʔ MC: dei 25 Attributions

Dì 弟 refers to the younger brothers.

  • n[post-N.]+Nprbrother
  • n[post-N]younger brother; younger brothers
  • n[post-N]nonreferentiala younger brother in general
  • nadNyounger-brother
  • nadVas a younger brother; like a younger brother 弟畜之 "nourish like a younger brother would"
  • nadVreference=objectas the younger brother; like a younger brother SHIJI: 弟畜 HS:王莽少與峺兄弟同列友善,兄事斿而弟畜峺。
  • viactact as a younger brother should
  • n[post-N]autonymthe younger brother
  • npost-Nbrother of N
  • n(post-N)younger brother of the contextually determinate N
  • n(post-N).=Nprthe contextually determinate younger brother of N, Npr
母弟   mǔ dì OC: mɯʔ liilʔ MC: mu dei 6 Attributions
  • NP=Nprbrother by the same mother (and father) by the name of Npr
  • NPpost-Nprbrother of NPpr by the same mother
  • NPpost-Nyounger brother by the same mother of N
  • NP{PRED}be a younger brother by the same mother
   kūn OC: kuun MC: kuo̝n 5 Attributions
  • n[post-N]anyone in the same family, of the same generation, but older than ego
  • nccbrothers 二昆
   zhòng OC: ɡrluŋs MC: ɖuŋ 2 Attributions

Zhòng 仲 refers to the next-eldest or second-eldest brother.

  • nsecond eldest brother
   bó OC: praaɡ MC: pɣɛk 2 Attributions

Bó 伯/霸 is the technical term for the eldest brother.

  • neldest brother
介弟   jiè dì OC: kreeds liilʔ MC: kɣɛi dei 1 Attribution
  • NPpost-Npolite: younger brother
伯兄   bó xiōng OC: praaɡ qhʷraŋ MC: pɣɛk hɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPsingulareldest brother
家兄   jiā xiōng OC: kraa qhʷraŋ MC: kɣɛ hɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPelder brother
人兄   rén xiōng MC: nyin xjwaeng OC: njin qhʷraŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialan elder brother
   shū MC: syuwk OC: qhljɯwɡ 1 Attribution
  • nthird eldest brother
   yà OC: qraaɡs MC: ʔɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • nbrother-in-law
   jì OC: kʷids MC: ki 0 Attributions

Jì 季 refers to the last-born brother or sister.

  • nlast-born sibling; youngest of the children; third in seniority of brothers
宗子   zōng zǐ OC: tsuuŋ sklɯʔ MC: tsuo̝ŋ tsɨ 0 Attributions

Zōng zǐ 宗子 is a specific, formal, and ritual term for the eldest brother and heir in a family, typically after the death of whom he succeeds. See HEIR.

    弟兄   dì xiōng OC: liilʔ qhʷraŋ MC: dei hɣaŋ 0 Attributions
    • NP[post-N]my brother
    阿兄   ā xiōng OC: qlaal qhʷraŋ MC: ʔɑ hɣaŋ 0 Attributions
    • NP(post-N)the elder brother
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • NPnonreferentialan elder brother

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: