GIFT  禮物

GOOD THING which one GIVES to someone.
PRESENTHANDOUTDONATIONOFFERINGBESTOWALBONUSAWARDENDOWMENTTIPGRATUITYLARGESSEINFORMAL FREEBIEPERKFORMAL BENEFACTION
Hypernym

THING -> OBJECT -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
Old Chinese Criteria

NB: all the words below are derived from semantically corresponding verbs for to give and could be subsumed under these:

1. The general current word for any generous gift is cì 賜, and the general completely neutral term for a gift is wèi 遺.

2. Huì 賄 and lù 賂 are words for "gift" which is often given with an ulterior purpose, and the word regularly comes to mean "bribe", especially in the current binome huì lù 賄賂 "bribe".

3. Kuì 饋 refers to a ritual gift.

4. Xiàn 獻 is occasionally used for a gift to superiors.

Modern Chinese Criteria

禮品

禮物

厚禮

贈品

贈禮

人情

人事 (dial) gift.

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH

  • Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka ( APRESJAN 2004) p. 774

  • De differentiis ( DIFFERENTIAE I) p. 162

    MUNUS, DONUM

    360. Inter Munus et donum. Munus est debitum, [col. 47B] ut [ Al., in] patrono; donum, honorarium est. Item donum dantis est, munus accipientis. Dictum autem donum a dando, munus a muniendo, vel a monendo.

  • Cornu Copiae seu Linguae Latinae Commentarii ( PEROTTI 1480) p.

    DONUM and MUNUS distinction discussed in detail.

  • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 2.173:119

    DON.PRESENT

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.194

  • New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols. ( HOROWITZ 2005) p.

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nm : 31
  • n : 23
  • NP : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • vtoN : 1
  • nab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 27
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 4
  • 史記 : 4
  • 管子 : 3
  • 韓非子 : 3
  • 楚辭 : 3
  • 論語 : 2
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1

Words

   cì OC: sleeɡs MC: siɛ 14 Attributions

The general current word for any generous gift is cì 賜, and the general completely neutral term for a gift is wèi 遺.

  • nmobjectwhat is given to inferiors, gifts; benefits accruing to inferiors < 所 Vt
   lù OC: ɡ-raaɡs MC: luo̝ 9 Attributions

Huì 賄 and lù 賂 are words for "gift" which is often given with an ulterior purpose, and the word regularly comes to mean "bribe", especially in the current binome huì lù 賄賂 "bribe".

  • nm(sometimes compensatory, or promised) gift
   huì OC: qhʷɯɯʔ MC: huo̝i 7 Attributions

Huì 賄 and lù 賂 are words for "gift" which is often given with an ulterior purpose, and the word regularly comes to mean "bribe", especially in the current binome huì lù 賄賂 "bribe".

  • nmgift
貽 / 詒   yí OC: lɯ MC: jɨ yí OC: lɯ MC: jɨ 4 Attributions
  • ngift; present
   zhì OC: tjibs MC: tɕi 3 Attributions
  • nceremonial gift
   wèi OC: k-luds MC: ji 3 Attributions

The general current word for any generous gift is cì 賜, and the general completely neutral term for a gift is wèi 遺.

  • ngift
   gòng OC: kooŋs MC: kuŋ 2 Attributions
  • npolite gift
   kuàng OC: qhʷaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • nobjectgift
   fù OC: baɡs MC: bi̯o 2 Attributions
  • ngift of money and goods to defray expenses with funeral
   hán OC: ɡlɯɯm MC: ɦəm 1 Attribution
  • nabactfuneral presentation of cowrie shells and jade
  • vt(oN)make ritual gifts of cowrie shells and jade to a contextually determinate receiver
   fèng OC: boŋʔ MC: bi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • nwhat is handed one politely
   zhēng OC: kjɯŋ MC: tɕɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoN(sacrifice>) general: give as a present
   xiàn OC: hŋans MC: hi̯ɐn 1 Attribution

Xiàn 獻 is occasionally used for a gift to superiors.

  • ngift to superiors, offering
   lǐ OC: riiʔ MC: lei 1 Attribution
  • npresent
   suì OC: sɢluds MC: zi 1 Attribution
  • nfuneral gifts of clothes; give as funeral gift
   zī OC: sti MC: tsi 1 Attribution
  • ngift, small bribe
   zèng OC: dzɯɯŋs MC: dzəŋ 1 Attribution
  • nobjectgift
饋 / 餽   kuì OC: ɡruds MC: gi kuì OC: ɡruls MC: gi 1 Attribution

Kuì 饋 refers to a ritual gift. Kuì 饋 refers to a ritual gift.

  • ngift
禽犢   qín dú OC: ɡrɯm ɡ-looɡ MC: gim duk 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialvarious presents (typically of wild animals or young calves) designed to further one's career
   bì MC: -- OC: beds 1 Attribution
  • nm(wedding etc) gift
   pìn 1 Attribution
  • vt+prep+Noffer a polite/ritual present to
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • nm(wedding etc) gift

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: