BRIBE  賄賂

NOT LEGITIMATE GIFT so as to INFLUENCE the DECISIONS of an OFFICIAL OR POWERFUL HUMAN.
BUY OFFPAY OFFSUBORNGREASE SOMEONE'S PALM
Antonymy

SALARY

See also

GIVEBUY

Kind Of

GIFT

Old Chinese Criteria

1. Lù 賂 standardly refers to substantial active bribery of any kind, including the offer of singing girls, music masters, and quite frequently territory as well as imortant ritual objects like tripods and bells, but also in this case the word is used for presents one cannot plausibly construe as straightforward bribes. See GIFT and GIVE.

2. Huì 賄 refers to customary gifts on formal occasions which are often hard to distinguish from bribes, and characteristically the word regularly refers to passive bribery. See also PROPERTY and GIFT. Commentators wish us to believe that the word refers specifically to "bribe with gifts of silk", but there is no clear early evidence of this.

3. Huò 貨 refers to any illegal act of making gifts to encourage unlawful actions, and also to the bribes themselves.

4. Nà 納/內 is the technical term for the receiving of bribes, i.e. passive corruption.

5. The word qiú 賕, which became current in Han times, refers to active as well as passive corruption.

6. Zāng 藏 / 臧 and huò lù 貨賂 occasionally refer to bribes received.

Modern Chinese Criteria

賄賂

行賄

賄買

打點

收買

買通

買關節

通關節

受賄 refers to being prepared to receive bribes.

納賄

貪賄

貪贓

貪贓枉法

招權納賄

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

The words for bribery are not easy to distinguish clearly with respect to their semantic nuances, the only clear lines of distinction being between disposition to use bribes, the practice of taking bribes, and the bribes themselves.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

USURA

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1329

賄,賂

1. WL maintains that hui3 賄 tends to consist of cloth whereas lu4 賂 tends to consist of other goods. This traditional view is not borne out by the primary source evidence. It sounds like a late rationalisation. Bribes lu4 賂 are frequently specified to consist of specialists like singing girls and music masters and lands, also by offers to senior positions.

2. WL claims that lu4 賂 can refer to property as such. I have not found such examples in pre-Buddhist literature, and indeed WL provide no example at all.. But I have not checked the examples in HYDCD.

3. WL maintains that the meaning "bribe" for lu4 賂 is a 後起義. This meaning is, of course, exceedingly common in early literature from ZUO onwards. Quoting a JINSHU example for this is most misleading.

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 45
  • nm : 44
  • nab : 14
  • vi : 10
  • vt(oN) : 8
  • NPm : 4
  • NP : 3
  • NPab : 2
  • nab : 1
  • vadN : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+vt+N2 : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
  • NPab{N1&N2} : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 83
  • 韓非子 : 23
  • 史記 : 8
  • 管子 : 7
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1

Words

   lù OC: ɡ-raaɡs MC: luo̝ 86 Attributions

Lù 賂 standardly refers to substantial active bribery of any kind, including the offer of singing girls, music masters, and quite frequently territory as well as imortant ritual objects like tripods and bells, but also in this case the word is used for presents one cannot plausibly construe as straightforward bribes. See GIFT and GIVE.

  • nabactbribery 行賂
  • nmbribe 受賂
  • vadNserving as a bribe 賂器
  • viactuse bribes, engage in active bribery;
  • vt(oN)bribe contextually determinate recipients (以 "with" something)
  • vt+prep+Nbribe
  • vtoNbribe; bribe (e.g. yǐ 以 "with" precious objects, workers, or fine horses); give bribes to
  • vtoNpassivebribe
  • vttoN1.+N2bribe N1 with gift of N2
  • vtt(oN1.)+vt+N2bribe the contextually determinate N1 using N2
   huò OC: hŋʷaals MC: hʷɑ 17 Attributions

Huò 貨 refers to any illegal act of making gifts to encourage unlawful actions, and also to the bribes themselves.

  • nabactbribery
  • nmbribe
  • vtoNbribe a person with gifts
   huì OC: qhʷɯɯʔ MC: huo̝i 11 Attributions

Huì 賄 refers to customary gifts on formal occasions which are often hard to distinguish from bribes, and characteristically the word regularly refers to passive bribery. See also PROPERTY and GIFT. Commentators wish us to believe that the word refers specifically to "bribe with gifts of silk", but there is no clear early evidence of this.

  • nmbribe; gifts ZUO Xiang 10.12 政以賄成 "the government has been carried on by means of bribes"
  • vipsychengage in (passive) bribery; be keen on bribes and gifts;
  • vtoNbribe (perhaps primarily with silk or rolls of cloth, according to commentators); bribe
   bì OC: beds MC: biɛi 8 Attributions
  • viactoffer bribes
  • vtoNbribe with silk/money
  • nmbribes, required gifts
貨賂   huò lù OC: hŋʷaals ɡ-raaɡs MC: hʷɑ luo̝ 7 Attributions
  • NPabactbribery
  • NPmbribes
  • VPiactengage in active bribery
貨賄   huò huì OC: hŋʷaals qhʷɯɯʔ MC: hʷɑ huo̝i 3 Attributions
  • NPbribes
   qiú OC: ɡu MC: gɨu 2 Attributions

The word qiú 賕, which became current in Han times, refers to active as well as passive corruption.

  • nabactbribery
  • nmbribes
  • vadNcorrupt
  • viactSHIJI: be corrupt, both give and take bribes
納 / 內   nà OC: nuub MC: nəp nèi OC: nuubs MC: nuo̝i 1 Attribution

Nà 納/內is the technical term for the receiving of bribes, i.e. passive corruption. Nà 納/內is the technical term for the receiving of bribes, i.e. passive corruption.

  • nabactbribery, the receiving of bribes
賕納   qiú nà OC: ɡu nuub MC: gɨu nəp 1 Attribution
  • NPab{N1&N2}actthe taking or asking for bribes
苞苴   bāo jū MC: paew tsjo OC: pruu ska 1 Attribution
  • nabactbribery of all kinds
臧 / 臧藏   zāng OC: skaaŋ MC: tsɑŋ  OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

Zāng 藏/臧 and huò lù 貨賂 occasionally refer to bribes received. Zāng 藏/臧 and huò lù 貨賂 occasionally refer to bribes received.

  • nmHANSHU: bribes taken
納賂   nà lù OC: nuub ɡ-raaɡs MC: nəp luo̝ 0 Attributions
  • VPt+prep+Ngive bribes to N
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • nabactbribery of all kinds

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: