ARTISAN  工匠

WORKER who WORKS on something he is BELIEVED to be EDUCATED FOR AND to EXCEL in, AND who is NOT an OFFICIAL.[[HANDWERKER]]
CRAFTSMANARTISANARTISTSKILLED WORKEREXPERTMASTERARCHAIC ARTIFICER
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for a worker or craftsman is jiàng 匠 (ant. shì 士 "freeman; scholar").

2. Yōng 庸 (ant. jūn zǐ 君子 "gentleman") refers to any menial worker.

3. Yì 役 (ant. zhǔ 主 "person in charge") refers specifically to a corvee labourer. See CORVEE LABOURER

4. Táo 陶 "potter", páo 庖 "cook", yě 冶 "founder" are current specific terms.

5. Zhū 侏 and rú 儒 are specific terms referring to the clowns or court entertainers. See CLOWN

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

HUMAN AFFAIRS 46. 工匠。

工,通稱。

匠,木匠;作工匠泛稱,側重在手藝。

技,少獨用,常與 “ 工 ” 連言。

Modern Chinese Criteria

工人

工友

工民

工匠

匠人

丁匠

匠戶

巧手

巧匠

手藝人

藝人

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.42

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 467

ARTIFEX, Operum arte effector. Qvisita sunt Scire, Velle, Posse, ex arte Operari.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

CRAFTSMAN

faber refers to any craftsman like a carpenter or a smith, and the connotation is that his work involves the exercise of physical strength.

opifex refers to any craftsman, and the connotation is that his work involves mechanical or technical skills.

artifex refers to any craftsman or technician taken to be in posssession of advanced technical or professional skills enabling him to do advanced physical work.

LABOURER

mercenarius refers to a labourer insofar as he works not for their own interest but for pay.

operarius refers to a labourer insofar as they undertake to perform for others a piece of merely mechanical work.

mercenarius refers to a labourer and focusses on the fact that he sells his work for gain.

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 99B

Handwerker

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 81

KOSELLECK 1972-97 Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe 1.216-242

See WORKER

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 54

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 230

artifex refers to anyone who is highly qualified to carry out a certain kind of manual work in a professional way.

opifex refers to anyone who is professionally trained to do manual work.

faber refers to a craftsman who works in timber, iron or stone.

operarii are workers generally skilled or unskilled.

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.540

STAIGER 2003 Das grosse China-Lexikon 289

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

HANDWERK

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 31

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 99A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 18
  • NP{N1adN2} : 10
  • NP : 6
  • n=Npr : 3
  • v[adN] : 3
  • n(post-N) : 1
  • nab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 13
  • 春秋左傳 : 8
  • 孟子 : 5
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 尹文子 : 1

Words

   gōng OC: kooŋ MC: kuŋ 12 Attributions
  • nagentspecialised worker; craftsman, artisan; sometimes specifically: musician
玉人   yù rén OC: ŋɡoɡ njin MC: ŋi̯ok ȵin 6 Attributions
  • NP{N1adN2}jade worker, lapidary
   jiàng OC: sbaŋs MC: dzi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions

The current general word for a worker or craftsman is jiàng 匠 (ant. shì 士 "freeman; scholar").

  • n=NprCarpenter X 匠石
  • n(post-N)figurativecreator, concrete author of all details of N
皁 / 皂   zào OC: sgluuʔ MC: dzɑu zào OC: dzuuʔ MC: dzɑu 3 Attributions
  • nmenial worker in the service of a freeman; servant in charge of animals
輿人   yú rén OC: k-la njin MC: ji̯ɤ ȵin 3 Attributions
  • NPcart-man; also: cartwright
   yě OC: laʔ MC: jɣɛ 2 Attributions

Táo 陶 "potter", páo 庖 "cook", yě 冶 "founder" are current specific terms.

  • v[adN]ZZ: founder
百工   bǎi gōng OC: praaɡ kooŋ MC: pɣɛk kuŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPcollectivethe artisans
矢人   shǐ rén OC: lʰiʔ njin MC: ɕi ȵin 2 Attributions
  • NP{N1adN2}arrow-maker
工匠   gōng jiàng MC: kuwng dzjangH OC: kooŋ sbaŋs 2 Attributions
  • nartisan
   yōng OC: k-loŋ MC: ji̯oŋ 1 Attribution

Yōng 庸 (ant. jūn zǐ 君子 "gentleman") refers to any menial worker.

  • nagentworker
   jì OC: ɡreʔ MC: giɛ 1 Attribution
  • v[adN](one who is skillful >) XUN: skilled worker
   táo OC: b-lu MC: dɑu 1 Attribution

Táo 陶 "potter", páo 庖 "cook", yě 冶 "founder" are current specific terms.

  • npotter
  • nabactthe art of pottery; pottery
作師   zuò shī OC: tsaaɡ sril MC: tsɑk ʂi 1 Attribution
  • NPworker; workers
函人   hán rén OC: ɡuum njin MC: ɦəm ȵin 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1adN2}armour-maker
弓人   gōng rén OC: kʷɯŋ njin MC: kuŋ ȵin 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1adN2}bow-maker
   zhū OC: tjo MC: tɕi̯o 0 Attributions

Zhū 侏 and rú 儒 are specific terms referring to the clowns or court entertainers. See CLOWN

       rú OC: njo MC: ȵi̯o 0 Attributions

    Zhū 侏 and rú 儒 are specific terms referring to the clowns or court entertainers. See CLOWN

         páo OC: bruu MC: bɣɛu 0 Attributions

      Táo 陶 "potter", páo 庖 "cook", yě 冶 "founder" are current specific terms.

      • ncook See COOK
         yì OC: ɢʷleɡ MC: jiɛk 0 Attributions

      Yì 役 (ant. zhǔ 主 "person in charge") refers specifically to a corvee labourer. See CORVEE LABOURER

        Existing SW for

        Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: