EFFORT  努力

DELIBERATE DILIGENT TRY:attempt to SUCCEED in an ACTION.
EXERTIONENERGYWORKENDEAVORAPPLICATIONLABORPOWERMUSCLETOILSTRAININFORMAL SWEATELBOW GREASE
Taxonoymy

ASPIRATIONWORK

See also

TIRELESS

Kind Of

TRY

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general word for physical (and sometimes also mental) effort is perhaps miǎn 勉.

2. Láo 勞 (ant. yì 逸 "failure to put in an effort, relaxed attitude") emphasises the strenuousness and the tiresome nature of effort, and is the most widely used word.

3. Lì 力 emphasises the strength needed to make a effort.

4. Wù 務 emphasises the dutifulness of effort. NB: the meaning "strive to" is separate. See STRIVE FOR.

5. Qín 勤 refers to an honest and strenuous effort.

6. Yòng xīn 用心 focusses on concentration and the consciousness of an effort.

7. The common word jìn 盡 is sometimes used to refer to an all-out effort to do something.

Modern Chinese Criteria

努力

用功

用心

發奮

奮發

奮勉

奮起

奮鬥

艱苦奮鬥

埋頭苦幹

奮起直追

奮發圖強

發奮圖強

發憤圖強

勵精圖治

聞雞起舞

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

GOLDIN 2008 When Zhong 忠 does not Mean 'Loyalty' Dao. A Journal of Comnparative Philosophy

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 170

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • VPi : 24
  • vtoN : 22
  • nab : 19
  • vi : 11
  • vt[oN] : 11
  • VPt+V[0] : 7
  • vt+V[0] : 7
  • NPab : 6
  • vadV : 5
  • VP prep N : 4
  • vt+prep+N : 4
  • VPadV : 4
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • VPt+prep+N : 2
  • VPt[oN] : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 22
  • 春秋左傳 : 21
  • 論語 : 12
  • 百喻經 : 10
  • 孟子 : 6
  • 禮記 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 六祖壇經 : 5
  • 管子 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 太平經 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 文選 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   miǎn OC: mronʔ MC: miɛn 26 Attributions

The most general word for physical (and sometimes also mental) effort is perhaps miǎn 勉.

  • vadVwith every effort, using all one's strength
  • vt[oN]make an intense effort; do one's best
  • vt+prep+Nmake in effort for, work hard towards
  • vt+V[0]strain oneself in VERBING, do one's best to VERB
  • vtoNexert oneself for; do the utmost for
   qín OC: ɡlɯn MC: gɨn 11 Attributions

Qín 勤 refers to an honest and strenuous effort.

  • nabactmaking a diligent effort
  • vadVwith great effort
  • vt[oN]put in a strenuous effort
  • vtoNexert a diligent effort for
  • vtoNcausativecause to put in strenuous effort
  • vtoNN=actexert properly
努力   nǔ lì OC: naaʔ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: nuo̝ lɨk 11 Attributions
  • VPadVwith all one's strength
  • VPiactexcert oneself, put in effort
  • VPiimperativemake an effort!
  • VPt+V[0]make every effort to V
  • VPt+V[0]imperativemake every effort to V!
   zhōng OC: krluŋ MC: ʈuŋ 10 Attributions
  • nabactdedicated effort; giving one's best
  • vadVwith whole-hearted effort
  • viactgive one's best; do as well as one can
  • vt(oN)do one's best for; work wholheartedly for something or someone contextually determinate
  • vtoNgive one's best for someone or something
   shì OC: dzrɯs MC: ɖʐɨ 9 Attributions
  • viactmake effort
  • nabacteffort used in the performance of work; strategic effort
   jìn OC: dzinʔ MC: dzin 9 Attributions

The common word jìn 盡 is sometimes used to refer to an all-out effort to do something.

  • vt[oN]do one's best
  • vt+prep+Nput in effort for; excert oneself for
  • vtoNdo one's best in (agricultural work etc)
  • vtoNcausativecause someone to do all he can> get (someone) to do his very best
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to do one's very best, cause (oneself) to give everything
  • vttoN1.+N2causativecause (oneself) to make every effort for N2
精進   jīng jìn OC: tseŋ tsins MC: tsiɛŋ tsin 7 Attributions
  • NPabactBUDDH: effort, right effort (one of the Six Perfections of a Bodhisattva; the phon. transcipton is 毗梨耶波羅蜜); skr. vīrya [pāramitā]
  • VPiactBUDDH: put in effort in order to make spiritual progress
用心   yòng xīn OC: k-loŋs slɯm MC: ji̯oŋ sim 6 Attributions

Yòng xīn 用心 focusses on concentration and the consciousness of an effort.

  • VPibe energetic in one's concerns, be intensely concerned about things, show intense concern for things
  • VPiactpay attention and make an effort!
  • VPtoNuse one's mind on
  • NPabacteffort
盡力   jìn lì OC: dzinʔ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: dzin lɨk 6 Attributions
  • viactdo one's best, put in every effort, do what one can
  • VPadVwith all one's might
   gōng OC: kooŋ MC: kuŋ 3 Attributions
  • nabacteffort expended
   qú OC: ɡo MC: gi̯o 3 Attributions
  • viactarchaic and poetic, SHI: strenuously; toil strenuously
   wù OC: mos MC: mi̯o 3 Attributions

Wù 務 emphasises the dutifulness of effort. NB: the meaning "strive to" is separate. See STRIVE FOR.

  • nabacteffort
   láo OC: raaw MC: lɑu 2 Attributions

Láo 勞 (ant. yì 逸 "failure to put in an effort, relaxed attitude") emphasises the strenuousness and the tiresome nature of effort, and is the most widely used word.

  • nabrequired or obligatory effort
   qióng OC: ɡʷɯŋ MC: guŋ 2 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nexhaust one's energies in an effort towards
功力   gōng lì OC: kooŋ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: kuŋ lɨk 2 Attributions
  • NPabacteffort
勉力   miǎn lì OC: mronʔ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: miɛn lɨk 2 Attributions
  • VPiactmake an effort; make every effort
勤苦   qín kǔ OC: ɡlɯn khaaʔ MC: gɨn khuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • VPiactmake strained and painful efforts, take upon oneself hardship as a method of self-cultivation
操事   cāo shì OC: tshaaw dzrɯs MC: tshɑu ɖʐɨ 2 Attributions
  • VPt+prep+Nput one's effort into N
用力   yòng lì OC: k-loŋs ɡ-rɯɡ MC: ji̯oŋ lɨk 2 Attributions
  • VPadVforcefully
  • VPt+V[0]employ strength > use effort to, exert oneself Ving
  • VP[adN]one who makes an effort
用意   yòng yì OC: k-loŋs qɯɡs MC: ji̯oŋ ʔɨ 2 Attributions
  • VPiactmake an effort
  • VPt+V[0]make an intellectual effort to V; make the effort to V
著力   zhuó lì OC: k-laɡ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: ʈi̯ɐk lɨk 2 Attributions
  • VPiactattach strength > put in effort, excert oneself, exhort oneself
   fěi OC: phɯlʔ MC: phɨi 1 Attribution
  • vipsychmake a painful effort
   nóng OC: nuuŋ MC: nuo̝ŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNmake an effort with respect to
  • vadVwith laborious efforts, energetically
勉強   miǎn qiǎng OC: mronʔ ɡaŋʔ MC: miɛn gi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPimake a strenuous effort
  • VPiunnaturalmake an artificial/unnatural effort
勤力   qín lì OC: ɡlɯn ɡ-rɯɡ MC: gɨn lɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPt+V[0]make every effort to
疲勞   pí láo OC: bral raaw MC: biɛ lɑu 1 Attribution
  • NPabactstrenuous effort
  • VPtoNcausativewear oneself out
盡心   jìn xīn MC: dzinX sim OC: dzinʔ slɯm 1 Attribution
  • VP prep Nacthave all my attention focussed on> make every effort on
勞力   láo lì MC: law lik OC: raaw ɡ-rɯɡ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactmake a powerful effort
僶俛   mǐn miǎn  MC: mjinX mjenX  OC: mblinʔ mronʔ  1 Attribution
  • VPiactmake a strenuous deliberate effort
軥錄   qú lu4 MC: gju -- OC: ɡo -- 1 Attribution
  • VPi= qúlu4 劬碌: be hard-working
疾力   jí lì MC: dzit lik OC: dzid ɡ-rɯɡ 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]to put very much effort in one's duties, to work assiduously
   wěi OC: mɯlʔ MC: mɨi 0 Attributions
  • vibe vigorous; put in effort
   sǐ OC: pliʔ MC: si 0 Attributions
  • vadVwith the utmost effort, German: unter Einsatz des Lebens
   kǔ OC: khaaʔ MC: khuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • viactput in a strenuous effort
   fèi OC: phɯds MC: phɨi 0 Attributions
  • nabactexpended effort, exercise of effort
   zhì OC: ɡrleʔ MC: ɖiɛ 0 Attributions
    懃力   qín lì OC: ɡlɯn ɡ-rɯɡ MC: gɨn lɨk 0 Attributions
    • VPiactput in a diligent effort
    毗梨邪波羅蜜   pí lí yé bō luó luó OC: bi ril la paal b-raal mbiɡ MC: bi li jɣɛ pʷɑ lɑ mit 0 Attributions
    • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: effort, right effort, pefection of effort (one of the Six Perfections, liùdù 六度; see also jīngjìn 精進); SANSKRIT vīrya-pāramitā
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VP prep Nacthave all my attention focussed on> make every effort on

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: