CUSTOM  風俗

REPEATED ACT CONFORMING to what is a COMMON RULE in one's GROUP.
HABITTRADITIONPRACTICEUSAGEOBSERVANCEWAYCONVENTIONFORMALITYCEREMONYRITUALSACRED COWUNWRITTEN RULEMORESFORMAL PRAXISHABITPRACTICEROUTINEWAYWONTPOLICYRULE
Taxonoymy

RITUALGAMECULTURECONVENTIONALFASHION

See also

HABIT

Kind Of

ACT

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for current (but changeable) customs and habits at all levels of society, indluding the highest echelons of society is fēng 風. There is a current connotation that what are current fēng 風 are at least partly the result of some cultural policy or strategy.

2. Sú 俗 (and the rarer and much more personal xí 習 ) tend to refer to what is perceived as popular and sometimes even vulgar traditional practices. There is a current conception that the sú 俗 are quintessential in origin and essence, but in spite of this they are conceived of as changeable in principle.

3. Lǐ 禮 "ritual practice" refers to customary behaviour that is in accordance with the demands of ritual propriety. See RITUAL

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

HUMAN AFFAIRS 19. 習俗。

習,側重在經常性。

慣,側重在固定性。

風,側重在廣泛性。

俗,側重在群眾性。

Modern Chinese Criteria

風俗

風氣

風尚

習性

習氣

流俗

謠俗

習俗

民俗

風土

人情

風土人情

風俗習慣

習慣

習以為常

習與性成

習慣成自然

三句不離本行

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.61

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 277

104. Inter Consuescimus, assuescimus, insuescimus. [col. 22A] Consuescimus 16 bona, insuescimus mala, assuescimus utraque [ Al., utrumque].

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

HABIT/CUSTOM

habitus refers to a manner of living, a habit of mind and/or body.

habitudo refers typically to a physical habit.

RITUAL

consuetudo refers to any uniform observance of a standard of behaviour by an individual or by a group.

mos refers to reasoned observance of a standard on moral and traditional grounds.

ritus refers to the hallowed of something as ordained by the gods or other supernatural powers as obligatory ceremony, and the term typically has religious connotations.

caerimonia refers to what is habitually observed as a standard of ritual practice in serving the gods.

HABIT

solere refers to any event or action occurring routinely or regularly.

consuevisse refers specifically to recurrent habitual action.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 101

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 104

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

ASSUETUDO (habit, not custom, German: Gewohnheit/Gewoehnung)

CONSUETUDO

MORES

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 59

QIAN YULIN 1996 中華古代文化辭典 Zhonghua gudai wenhua cidian 268-289

Traditional Chinese basic custom-related terminology simply explained.

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.1957

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 2.1521

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.597

GEWOHNHEIT

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 432

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 124

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 335

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 123

WEBER 1857 Democritus Ridens 7.335

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.388.343

USAGE.COUTUME; COUTUME.HABITUDE

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.196

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 428

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 86A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 42
  • n : 13
  • NPab : 9
  • NP : 3
  • vt+V[0] : 3
  • nab : 1
  • nadV : 1
  • VPtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 淮南子 : 12
  • 韓非子 : 11
  • 管子 : 8
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 鹽鐵論 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 論語 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 1
  • 春秋左傳 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

   sú OC: sɢloɡ MC: zi̯ok 30 Attributions

Sú 俗 (and the rarer and much more personal xí 習) tend to refer to what is perceived as popular and sometimes even vulgar traditional practices. There is a current conception that the sú 俗 are quintessential in origin and essence, but in spite of this they are conceived of as changeable in principle.

  • nabactcurrent local custom; temporary habit
  • nabpsychcurrent local opinion
   fēng OC: plum MC: puŋ 14 Attributions

The current general word for current (but changeable) customs and habits at all levels of society, indluding the highest echelons of society is fēng 風. There is a current connotation that what are current fēng 風 are at least partly the result of some cultural policy or strategy.

  • nlocal ways; current habit
  • nablocal current practice
   xí OC: sɢlɯb MC: zip 9 Attributions
  • nabactcurrent practice
  • nadVby custom (note that the semantics is like that of 性 "by nature")
  • vtoNputativeconsider as one's custom> be accustomed to
風俗   fēng sú OC: plum sɢloɡ MC: puŋ zi̯ok 7 Attributions
  • NPabacthabits, customs (also concretely referential)
  • NPabactcommendable good customs
   xǐ OC: qhɯʔ MC: hɨ 3 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]have a tendency to
習俗   xí sú OC: sɢlɯb sɢloɡ MC: zip zi̯ok 3 Attributions
  • NPcustoms, accustomed practices, habits
   lǐ OC: riiʔ MC: lei 2 Attributions

Lǐ 禮 "ritual practice" refers to customary behaviour that is in accordance with the demands of ritual propriety. See RITUAL

  • nabactproper ritual practice, characteristic ritual practice (of such and such a time)
   yí OC: li MC: ji 1 Attribution
  • nabactarchaic: practice
貫 / 貫   guàn OC: koons MC: kʷɑn guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • nabactfashion, custom
世習   shì xí OC: lʰebs sɢlɯb MC: ɕiɛi zip 1 Attribution
  • NPabactmundane practice
時宜   shí yí OC: ɡljɯ ŋɡral MC: dʑɨ ŋiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactproper behaviour at a given time; customs of the time
服習   fú xí OC: bɯɡ sɢlɯb MC: buk zip 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNintensitivebe thoroughly accustomed to
   cháng OC: djaŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabsocialcurrent custom
   guàn OC: kroons MC: kɣan 0 Attributions
  • vadVpost-v, SONGSHU: customarily
世法   shì fǎ OC: lʰebs pab MC: ɕiɛi pi̯ɐp 0 Attributions
  • NPabsocialpopular customs; ways of one's time 宋 俞文豹 《吹劍錄外集》:"講義理,別白是非,則須學術;酬酢事機,區分利害,必用世法。"
國俗   guó sú OC: kʷɯɯɡ sɢloɡ MC: kək zi̯ok 0 Attributions
  • NPabsocialnational custom; custom in the state
土風   tǔ fēng OC: kh-laaʔ plum MC: thuo̝ puŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabsociallocal custom SANGUOZHI
流風   liú fēng OC: ru plum MC: lɨu puŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabsocialcurrent custom SANGUOZHI
風教   fēng jiào OC: plum kruus MC: puŋ kɣɛu 0 Attributions

custom SANGUOZHI

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: