CATEGORY  

ABSTRACT CONCEPT REFERRING TYPICALLY to MANY THINGS with RESEMBLING FEATURES.
CLASSCLASSIFICATIONGROUPGROUPINGBRACKETHEADINGSETTYPESORTKINDVARIETYSPECIESBREEDBRANDMAKEMODELGRADEORDERRANKPIGEONHOLE
Taxonoymy

GROUPLITERARY GENRENATURAL KIND

See also

FEATURE

Kind Of

CONCEPT

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general current word for the abstract notion of a category of any kind is lèi 類.

2. Shǔ 屬 construes a category as something that concrete things belong to or belong under, and the term is not abstract in force.

3. Zhǒng 種 "kind" emphasises the common origin and derives from the biological notion of a species, and the term often refers specifically to the kinds of grain.

4. Chóu 疇 "natural group a thing belongs to" is not really a logical term of classification but essentially a term belonging to the sociology of animals.

Modern Chinese Criteria

種類 is the most general current word for a category.

類 is a current slightly more colloquial word for a category.

類別 focusses on the distinguishing function of classification.

品類 refers to a man-made category or class.

類型 prototypically focusses on the shared form of what belongs to one category.

門類 emphasises the man-made nature of the category.

部類 is a literary technical term for a category of things in a major scheme of classification.

項目 refers to categories of activities within a project.

品種 refers technically to a variety of goods for sale.

花色 refers idiomatically to a variety of goods for sale.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

LEIBNIZ 6.4 P. 31: G e n u s est cujus nomen ad pauciora restringi potest.

S p e c i e s est quod alterius restrictione intelligitur.

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 1199

HARBSMEIER 1998 Language and Logic Science and Civilisation in China

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 111

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.77

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 2.1317

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 4.714

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 4.776

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

NATURAL KINDS, SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTICAL CATEGORIES

QUINE 1987 Quiddities. An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary 22

CLASSES VERSUS PROPERTIES

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 25
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 20
  • ntpost-N : 15
  • NPab : 12
  • n : 10
  • npost-N : 8
  • nab.t:post.-N+zhi : 7
  • nab{PRED}.post-N : 5
  • vtoN : 5
  • npost-V{INDEF-ARTICLE}.adN : 5
  • ncpost-V{NUM}.+N : 4
  • NP : 3
  • npost-V{NUM}.adN : 3
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 2
  • nab.post-N : 1
  • NPpro : 1
  • vadN : 1
  • npost-V{NUM}.postadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 23
  • 祖堂集 : 22
  • 臨濟錄 : 13
  • 論衡 : 10
  • 春秋左傳 : 8
  • 賢愚經 : 6
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 3
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 沈約集九卷 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   lèi OC: ruds MC: li 37 Attributions

The general current word for the abstract notion of a category of any kind is lèi 類.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}conceptnatural kind, kind, class
  • nab.t:post.-N+zhithe category of items like N
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
  • nabpluraldifferent categories, different species
  • nabpredicate類也: be of the same category; belong to the same class of things
  • npost-Nnonreferentialpeople or things of the N kind
  • ntpost-Nmembersmembers of the category
  • nabconceptthe proper category, the right category
  • nab{PRED}.post-Nbe of the N category
   shǔ OC: djoɡ MC: dʑi̯ok 15 Attributions

Shǔ 屬 construes a category as something that concrete things belong to or belong under, and the term is not abstract in force.

  • nab.t:post.-N+zhithe category of items like N
  • ntpost-Nsubjectwhat belongs to a certain category; the likes of 有血氣之屬
  • vtoNbelong under, belong to; pertain to; belong to the category of
  • vttoN1.+N2to classify N1 as N2, to subsume N1 under N2
   zhǒng OC: tjoŋʔ MC: tɕi̯oŋ 13 Attributions

Zhǒng 種"kind" emphasises the common origin and derives from the biological notion of a species, and the term often refers specifically to the kinds of grain.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}kind of thing
  • nab.post-V{NUM}figurativekind, type, category
  • nabsocial(BUDDH:) social class in India: caste (sometimes also: clan, family lineage; see 種姓)
  • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nkinds of 五種人"five kinds of people"
  • npost-Nthe N-breed
   bān OC: paan MC: pʷɑn 11 Attributions
  • npost-V{NUM}.adNx kinds/sorts of N
  • npost-V{INDEF-ARTICLE}.adNcategory
  • nab.post-V{NUM}figurativecategory
  • nabcategory, class, sort
  • vadNsort of, kind of
   kē OC: khool MC: khʷɑ 8 Attributions
  • ncategory; legal subcategory>paragraph; order of magnitude
   tú OC: daa MC: duo̝ 7 Attributions
  • nab.t:post.-N+zhithe category of people of the category N
  • npost-Nnonreferentialkind of person GUAN: 行食之徒 people who wander about in search of something to eat; HSWZ 詐勝之徒 SHIJI 74 NN NN NN 之徒"people like NN"
   wù OC: mɯd MC: mi̯ut 4 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalcategory ZHOULI 道馬一物,田馬一物; relative rank; GUOYU: 草木之產各以其物
剎利王種   chà lì wáng zhǒng OC: tshraad rids ɢʷaŋ tjoŋʔ MC: ʈʂhɣat li ɦi̯ɐŋ tɕi̯oŋ 4 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhist(BUDDH:) one of the four castes in India: royal kṣatriya caste (see 種姓)
婆羅門種   pó luó mén zhǒng OC: baal b-raal mɯɯn tjoŋʔ MC: bʷɑ lɑ muo̝n tɕi̯oŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPabcolloquial(BUDDH:) one of the four castes in ancient India, the Brahman caste (see 種姓)
   pǐn OC: phrɯmʔ MC: phim 2 Attributions
  • nclasses of things (e.g. delicacies)
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
   zhuó OC: k-laɡ MC: ʈi̯ɐk 2 Attributions
  • vtoNfigurativebelong to, be attached to, pertain to; be openly present in
   bù OC: bɯʔ MC: buo̝ 2 Attributions
  • nab.post-V{NUM}post-Han: category of books in library science
  • npost-V{NUM}.postadNcategory, division, subcategory, part
  • nablogicalestablished categories; predetermined kinds (as opposed natural given kinds)
   dǎng OC: taaŋʔ MC: tɑŋ 2 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalkind of animal; kind of creature one is (also of humans)
   tiáo MC: dew OC: ɡ-lɯɯw 2 Attributions
  • nabfeaturecategory of items
   lún OC: ɡ-run MC: lʷin 1 Attribution
  • nabmetaphysicalclass, category
  • nab.post-Nlogicalcategory, sort
   yù OC: ɢʷrɯɡ MC: ɦɨk 1 Attribution
  • nabmetaphysicalcategory
   xìng OC: seŋs MC: siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabsocial(BUDDH:) social class/caste in Ancient India; short for zhǒngxìng 種姓
   chóu OC: du MC: ɖɨu 1 Attribution

Chóu 疇 "natural group a thing belongs to" is not really a logical term of classification but essentially a term belonging to the sociology of animals.

  • nabmetaphysicalnatural group; (ERYA: classificatory category) ZGC 夫物各有疇 "all things belong to groups"
   bèi OC: pɯɯls MC: puo̝i 1 Attribution
  • nabhumancategory > sort of person
  • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifiercategories 四輩弟子
伴輩   bàn bèi OC: baanʔ pɯɯls MC: bʷɑn puo̝i 1 Attribution
  • NPsort, kind of person
六類   liù lèi OC: ɡ-ruɡ ruds MC: luk li 1 Attribution
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: six types of existence (this is a very rare term for liùdào 六道 'Six Destinies');
模樣   mú yàng OC: maa k-laŋs MC: muo̝ ji̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabcategory
  • NPabfigurativecategory > unusual behaviour; (act in) a special manner (compare GERMAN "Allueren")
種姓   zhǒng xìng OC: tjoŋʔ seŋs MC: tɕi̯oŋ siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabsocial(BUDDH:) the (four) castes in Ancient India; skr. gotra (the four castes are usually referred to as sìxìng 四姓, skr. catvāro varṇāḥ; pali cattāra vaṇṇā; alternative terms are xīyù sìxìng 西域四姓, sì zhǒngxìng 四種姓, sì xìngzhǒng 四姓種, sìpǐn rén 四品人. This refers to the four classes/castes in ancient India: (1) the póluómén 婆羅門 caste; skr. Brāhmaṇa; this refers to the highest class comprising priests and scholar-officials. (2) chàdìlì 剎帝利, skr. Kṣtriya, is the second highest caste and refers to land lords (owners). This is the caste of royals (therefore referred to as wángzhǒng 王種 'royal caste'. Members of this caste managed political and military affairs. (3) The third class is referred to as fèishě 吠舍, or píshě(luó) 毘舍(羅); skr. Vaiśya; other terms include jūshì 居士, shāngjià 商賈, tiánjiā 田家, gōngshī 工師. The class refers to peasants, craftsmen, and merchants. (4) shǒutuóluó 首陀羅, skr. Śūdra, also referred to as shūtuóluó 輸陀羅, shǒutuó 首陀, shùdáluó 戍達羅, shùtuoluó 戍陀羅, shāshēng zhǒng 殺生種 ('the caste which kills life'), èzhǒng 惡種 ('the evil caste'). These terms refer to the very lowest caste, including slaves, butchers, etc. This class did not have the right to make offerings or engage in rituals. After death, members of the first three classes were supposed to be reborn as sentient beings whereas members of the fourth class were regarded as being incapable of being reincarnated (therefore the name yīshēng zǔ 一生祖 'one-life class'.)
剎利種   chà lì zhǒng OC: tshraad rids tjoŋʔ MC: ʈʂhɣat li tɕi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPcolloquial(BUDDH:) the second highest caste in Ancient India (see 種姓); skr. kṣatriya
首陀種   shǒu tuó zhǒng OC: qhljuʔ laal tjoŋʔ MC: ɕɨu dɑ tɕi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabcolloquial(BUDDH:) the lowest caste in Ancient India; shǒutuóluó 首陀羅, skr. Śūdra, also referred to as shūtuóluó 輸陀羅, shǒutuó 首陀, shùdáluó 戍達羅, shùtuoluó 戍陀羅, shāshēng zhǒng 殺生種 ('the caste which kills life'), èzhǒng 惡種 ('the evil caste'). These terms refer to the very lowest caste, including slaves, butchers, etc. This class did not have the right to make offerings or engage in rituals. After death, members of the first three classes were supposed to be reborn as sentient beings whereas members of the fourth class were regarded as being incapable of being reincarnated (therefore the name yīshēng zǔ 一生祖 'one-life class'). (see also 種姓)
剎利帝種   chà lì dì zhǒng OC: tshraad rids k-leeɡs tjoŋʔ MC: ʈʂhɣat li tei tɕi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabcolloquial(BUDDH:) skr. Kṣatriya, the second highest caste and refers to land lords (owners). This is the caste of royals (therefore referred to as wángzhǒng 王種 'royal caste'. Members of this caste managed political and military affairs (see 種姓)
毗舍羅種   pí shě luó zhǒng OC: bi lʰaʔ b-raal tjoŋʔ MC: bi ɕɣɛ lɑ tɕi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabcolloquial(BUDDH:) The third caste in Ancient India is also referred to as fèishě 吠舍, or píshě(luó) 毘舍(羅); skr. Vaiśya; other terms include jūshì 居士, shāngjià 商賈, tiánjiā 田家, gōngshī 工師. The class refers to peasants, craftsmen, and merchants (see 種姓)
   liú MC: ljuw OC: ru 1 Attribution
  • nabcategory
萬類   wàn lèi MC: -- lwijH OC: mblans ruds 1 Attribution
  • NPabpluralthe myriad categories; all natural kinds
余一   yú yī yí,yì MC: yo 'jit OC: la qliɡ 1 Attribution
  • NPproI
   chóu OC: du MC: ɖɨu 0 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalcategory
   zú OC: sɡooɡ MC: dzuk 0 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalSHU: categories; kind
   yàng OC: k-laŋs MC: ji̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

yàng

  • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nx sorts/categories/types of N
   chǒu OC: khljuʔ MC: tɕhɨu 0 Attributions
  • nabconceptcategory
   mén OC: mɯɯn MC: muo̝n 0 Attributions
  • nabsemanticsection; category 分門別類
   sè OC: sqrɯɡ MC: ʂɨk 0 Attributions
  • nablogicalBuddh: category of physical objects in this world
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • nabcategory

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: