BITTER  

BASIC BAD FLAVOUR CONTRARY of SWEET.
SHARPACIDACIDICACRIDTARTSOURBITINGUNSWEETENEDVINEGARY
Antonymy

SWEET

Kind Of

FLAVOUR

Old Chinese Criteria

[[COMMON/RARE]]

[+FIG/LITERAL]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE]

1. The general word for bitterness is kǔ 苦 (ant. gān 甘 "sweet; tasty"), and this word is often metaphorical.

[+FIG], [GENERAL]; [[COMMON]]

2. Xīn 辛 refers to a more peppery, pungent bitterness, taken to be quite different from kǔ 苦, and the word has few metaphorical uses in pre-Buddhist Chinese.

[HIGH-DEGREE], [LITERAL]

3. Tú 荼 (ant.* yí 飴 "sweetener") refers to a plant known for its bitterness, and by extension the rare word means "bitter thing". The word is marginal in this group.

[SPECIFIC]

Modern Chinese Criteria

苦 is the current modern word for bitter.

苦口 refers to what is bitter to the mouth.

澀 refers to an astringent taste.

澀嘴 refers to what is astringent to the mouth.

苦澀 refers to what is bitter and astringent.

辛辣

辛酸

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 15.37

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

acerbus (ant. mitis, suavis) refers to a biting unpleasant bitterness.

amarus (ant. dulcis) refers to a nauseating unpleasant bitterness.

mordax refers figuratively to what is bitter, as if biting into one.

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

amarus 'bitter' [adj. o/a] (P1.+)

Derivatives: amaritudo 'bitterness' (Varro+), amaror [m.] 'bitter taste' (Lucr.+).

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 4
  • vadN : 4
  • nm : 3
  • vtoN : 3
  • n : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • nab : 1
  • VPi : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 4
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1

Words

   kǔ OC: khaaʔ MC: khuo̝ 14 Attributions

The general word for bitterness is kǔ 苦 (ant. gān 甘 "sweet; tasty"), and this word is heavenly laden with metaphorical potentialities.

  • nmnonreferentialthe bitter; what is bitter
  • vadNbitter; unpleasant to taste
  • vadNfigurativebitter
  • vibe bitter; feel bitter
  • vt+prep+Nbe bitter to
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe more bitter than
  • vtoNputativefind bitterness in
  • vtoNstativebe bitter to 良藥苦舌
  • nabfeaturebitterness
   xīn OC: siŋ MC: sin 4 Attributions

Xīn 辛 refers to a more peppery, pungent bitterness, and the word has few metaphorical uses in pre-Buddhist Chinese.

  • nsubjectthe pungent; what is pungent; the acid; what is acid
  • vadNbitter; acid
  • vipeppery pungent
   tú OC: laa MC: duo̝ 1 Attribution

Tú 荼(ant.* yí 飴 "sweetener") refers to a plant known for its bitterness, and by extension the rare word means "bitter thing". The word is marginal in this group.

  • nsubjectbitter things CC 荼薺 "bitter and sweet things" SHI 誰謂荼苦? who says that the t'u plant is bitter,
  • vadNfigurativebitter > suffering, painful
辛苦   xīn kǔ OC: siŋ khaaʔ MC: sin khuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe (quite, very?) bitter

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: