BOUNDARY  邊界

LIMIT which DIVIDES something into the INSIDE and OUTSIDE.
BORDERFRONTIERBORDERLINEPARTITIONFENCELINE
Taxonoymy

FIELD BOUNDARYBORDER PASS

See also

TERRITORY

Kind Of

LIMIT

Old Chinese Criteria

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[AREA/LINE]

1. Jiè 界 is perhaps the most general word for any border or boundary of any kind, current especially from Han times onwards, but the border thus designated is typically demarkated by some signs or symbols.

[GENERAL]

2. Jìng 境 is the technical general term for a border or borderline between states.

[LINE], [SPECIFIC]

3. Fēng 封 is an ancient word referring prototypically to a demarkated border betweem territories marked by raised mounds planted with trees, and with a prototypical link to borders established by feudal enfeofment..

[LINE], [SPECIFIC]

4. Biān 邊 refers to a border area as viewed from the angle of what is within this border. See BORDER AREA

[AREA],

5. LŸè 略 is sometimes used to refer to the borders between territories or states in ZUO.

[ARCHAIC], [LINE]; [[RARE]]

6. Fēng jiāng 封疆 refers in an abstract or bureaucratic way to all manner of boundaries.

7. Xiàn 限 is an elevated very rare term for a delimitation regarded as something set deliberately rather than naturally or historically given. Compare also LIMIT

[ELEVATED], [+FIG]; [[RARE]]

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

GEOGRAPHY 4.

界,界限的總稱。

限,把某一事物從另一事物中劃分出來的界限。

際,事物間的相接合的界限。

垠,天地宇宙不可及的極限或事物難以劃出的界限。

極,廣大地域極遠的邊界。

GEOGRAPHY 5. 地界。

疆,通稱。

封,堆土植樹而成的地界。

畔,耕作的田土界限。

略,以某一具體區域為邊界,重在歸屬。

境,國境線,是劃界的標志,不是地帶。

Modern Chinese Criteria

界線

分界

限界

界限

畛域

疆界

境界

邊界

地界 refers to the boundary of any plot of land.

周界

邊際

國界

省界

州界

縣界

區界

鄉界

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.17

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BOUNDARY

finis refers to a boundary as an abstract line.

terminus refers to a sign of a boundary in the form of a stone set up as the sign of a bounding point.

limes refers to a sign of a boundary in the form of a ridge.

FRANKE 1974 China Handbuch 454

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 70

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 38

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.66

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.873

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 246

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 171

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 134B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 77
  • NP : 24
  • vtoN : 13
  • nadN : 6
  • nab : 5
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • NPab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 35
  • 韓非子 : 16
  • 管子 : 13
  • 孟子 : 11
  • 史記 : 9
  • 禮記 : 7
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 2
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 文選 : 1
  • 鮑氏集 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

境 / 竟   jìng OC: kraŋʔ MC: kɣaŋ jìng OC: kraŋs MC: kɣaŋ 36 Attributions

Jìng 境 is the technical general term for a border or borderline between states. [LINE], [SPECIFIC] Jìng 境 is the technical general term for a border or borderline between states. [LINE], [SPECIFIC]

  • nn(post-Npl): border-line of the state, border of the state (for 出境 compare 出門)
  • nabfigurativedistinction; border; boundary
   jiè OC: kreeds MC: kɣɛi 16 Attributions

Jiè 界 is perhaps the most general word for any border or boundary of any kind, current especially from Han times onwards, but the border thus designated is typically demarkated by some signs or symbols. [GENERAL]

  • nthe (typically marked) border; sometimes by synecdoche the reference is to "area enclosd by the border", and these cases are not easy to separate out.
  • nabdeverbal: dividing or limiting function of the state borders
  • vtoNZGC: have a state boundary with, have a common boundary with
封疆   fēng jiāng OC: poŋ kaŋ MC: pi̯oŋ ki̯ɐŋ 14 Attributions

Fēng jiāng 封疆 refers in an abstract or bureaucratic way to all manner of boundaries.

  • NPpluralboundaries (of a state, or between fields)
   fēng OC: poŋ MC: pi̯oŋ 11 Attributions

Fēng 封 is an ancient word referring prototypically to a demarkated border betweem territories marked by raised mounds planted with trees, and with a prototypical link to borders established by feudal enfeofment.. [LINE], [SPECIFIC]

  • nborder marked by raised earth marked with trees; 四封,封洫generally: border
  • vt+prep+Nmake a boundary at
  • vtoNdemarcate, outline the boundary of
   jiāng OC: kaŋ MC: ki̯ɐŋ 9 Attributions
  • n(a) state boundary
  • ngeneralboundaries
  • vtoNcausativecause to have proper boundaries; make boundaries for; demarcate territory of
   biān OC: peen MC: pen 7 Attributions

Biān 邊 refers to a border area as viewed from the angle of what is within this border. See BORDER AREA [AREA]

  • nborder (of a state, or of the empire, as viewed from the inside)
  • nabmetaphysicalboundary, limit
  • nadNmarginal, near the border; on the border; border- 邊吏
   guān OC: kroon MC: kɣan 7 Attributions
  • nborder point, border check-point; mountain pass
  • nfigurativebarrier
   xiàn OC: ɡrɯɯnʔ MC: ɦɣɛn 4 Attributions

Xiàn 限 is an elevated very rare term for a delimitation regarded as something set deliberately rather than naturally or historically given. Compare also LIMIT [ELEVATED], [+FIG]; [[RARE]]

  • nboundary
  • nsubjectthat which is limited; that which is as limited (as what is specified in the preceding phrase) 五丈之限 "something with a limited height of five zhang"???
  • vtoNfix boundaries for, set definite boundaries for
   sài OC: sɯɯɡs MC: səi 3 Attributions
  • nfrontier, border region
  • nadNborderland-
經界   jìng jiè OC: keeŋs kreeds MC: keŋ kɣɛi 3 Attributions
  • NPnonreferential(administration of boundaries??>) boundaries, borders
   jiào OC: kleewɡs MC: keu 2 Attributions
  • nSHIJI: boundary, frontier
  • vtoNreach as boundary
   lǐ OC: ɡ-rɯʔ MC: lɨ 2 Attributions
  • ndivision between fields (SHI)
  • vtoNcausativedivide up into sections; make boundaries
   jì OC: skeds MC: tsiɛi 2 Attributions
  • nrift or boundary where different areas meet
   yǔ OC: ŋaʔ MC: ŋi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • nSHI: border, frontier
   yì OC: leɡ MC: jiɛk 1 Attribution
  • nboundary
   yǔ OC: ɢʷraʔ MC: ɦi̯o 1 Attribution
  • nboundary??
   lǜe OC: ɡ-raɡ MC: li̯ɐk 1 Attribution

Lyè 略 is sometimes used to refer to the borders between territories or states in ZUO. [ARCHAIC], [LINE]; [[RARE]]

  • nZUO: boundary between territories or states
他竟   tā jìng OC: lʰaal kraŋs MC: thɑ kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPboundary to another country
分界   fēn jiè OC: pɯn kreeds MC: pi̯un kɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • NPababstract distinction or borderline
分野   fēn yě OC: pɯn laʔ MC: pi̯un jɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPborder, border region (early examples in HYDCD dating from the Song)
封略   fēng lǜe OC: poŋ ɡ-raɡ MC: pi̯oŋ li̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • NPboundaries (of a state)
疆埸   jiāng yì OC: kaŋ leɡ MC: ki̯ɐŋ jiɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPboundary
疆畔   jiāng pàn OC: kaŋ baans MC: ki̯ɐŋ bʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • NPboundary, demarcated area
邊境   biān jìng OC: peen kraŋʔ MC: pen kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPborder; border regions
竟埸   jìng yì OC: kraŋs leɡ MC: kɣaŋ jiɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialboundary
   jiè OC: kreeds MC: kɣɛi 0 Attributions
  • nborder [anciently sometimes written for 界)
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • nboundary; boundary area SANGUOZHI
   è OC: ŋɡlaaɡ MC: ŋɑk 0 Attributions
  • npost-Han colloquial: border
   xù OC: qhʷrɯɡ MC: hɨk 0 Attributions

Xù 洫 refers to a canal which serves as a boundary for a territory.

    封界   fēng jiè OC: poŋ kreeds MC: pi̯oŋ kɣɛi 0 Attributions
    • NPababstract borderline

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: