See also


Kind Of


Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current word for concentrating one's attention or one's actions in one direction is zhuān 專/摶.

2. Níng 凝 refers to the concentration of abstract or "metaphysical" substances.

3. Yī 一 and yī 壹 emphasise the uniqueness of what is being concentrated on.

4. Xíng 行 and fú 服 "devote oneself completely to" focusses on action rather than thought as the field of concentration.

5. Jī 積 emphasises the cumulative results of concentration.

Modern Chinese Criteria

集中 is the current modern word for concentration.


rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 32
  • NPab : 25
  • nab : 10
  • vi : 7
  • NPadV : 5
  • VPtoN : 4
  • vadV : 3
  • VPi : 3
  • vt[oN] : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • nab(post-N) : 1
  • VPadV : 1
  • nadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 祖堂集 : 24
  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 9
  • 荀子 : 7
  • 六祖壇經 : 6
  • 論語 : 5
  • 春秋左傳 : 5
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 法集要頌經 : 4
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 文子 : 1


   dìng OC: teeŋs MC: teŋ 10 Attributions
  • nabactmeditation
  • nabbuddhistBUDDH. concentration; this is the a translation of skr. samādhi; syn. to the phonetical transcription 三昧
  • nadN(teaching, etc.) of concentration
  • vtoNconcentrate (one's thoughts etc)
   zhuān OC: tjon MC: tɕiɛn 10 Attributions

The current word for concentrating one's attention or one's actions in one direction is zhuān 專/摶.

  • vadVin a focussed proper way
  • vt+prep+Nconcentrate on
  • vtoNconcentrate in one's hands (political power); monopolise;
  • vtoNcausativecause to be (properly) concentrated
  • vtoNN=topicconcentrate on, be especially concerned with
  • vtoNpassivebe concentrated
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2concentrate N1 on N2
三昧   sān mèi OC: saam mɯɯds MC: sɑm muo̝i 10 Attributions
  • NPabpsychBUDDH: skr. samādhi; state of meditative absorption
   yī OC: qid MC: ʔit 8 Attributions
  • vichangeto become concentrated; to concentrate; be concentrated on one note
  • vtoNconcentrate 壹志 "concentrate the mind"
一心   yī xīn OC: qliɡ slɯm MC: ʔit sim 6 Attributions

Causing oneself to have a unified mind.

  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the One Mind (which comprises everything); the notion of One Mind of the early Chán School is usually based on the discussion in QIXINLUN
  • NPadVwith one's whole heart > whole-heartedly, single-mindedly, (GERMAN von ganzer Seele, mit Herz und Seele)
   dú MC: duwk OC: dooɡ 6 Attributions
  • nabactmoral concentration (XUN)
  • viactbe morally concentrated (XUN)
  • vadVin a concentrated way (XUN)
  • vtoNto concentrate on N, to be completely morally concentrated on N (XUN)
   yī OC: qliɡ MC: ʔit 5 Attributions

Yī 一 and yī 壹 emphasise the uniqueness of what is being concentrated on.

  • viactconcentrate on one thing; be single-minded
  • vtoNconcentrate uniquely on
  • vtoNimperativeconcentrate!
   fú OC: bɯɡ MC: buk 5 Attributions

Xíng 行and fú 服 "devote oneself completely to" focusses on action rather than thought as the field of concentration.

  • vtoNdevote oneself to, be preoccupied by
   chǔ OC: khljaʔ MC: tɕhi̯ɤ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNorientate oneself towards, feel at home in (in transferred sense); take one's stand in; practise or exercise (a virtue); settle for
   jiàn OC: keens MC: ken 3 Attributions
  • vtoNfocus on
   jì OC: sɡlɯɯwɡ MC: dzek 3 Attributions

jì jìng

  • VPiactBUDDH: engage in quiet contemplation/meditation [mod. CH]
   níng OC: ŋɡɯŋ MC: ŋɨŋ 2 Attributions

Níng 凝 refers to the concentration of abstract or "metaphysical" substances.

  • vadVin a concentrated way
  • vt[oN]concentrate one's mind ZHUANG[congealed with cold][CA]
  • vtoNconcentrate one's mind on
  • vtoNcausativeconcentrate, make concentrated
   zhì OC: kljɯs MC: tɕɨ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNconcentrate on
  • nab(post-N)concentration of the contextually determinate person
   shè OC: qhljeb MC: ɕiɛp 2 Attributions
  • vtoNfocus (one's mind); concentrate on
  • vt[oN]be attentive [to one's duty]
   jī OC: skleɡ MC: tsiɛk 2 Attributions

Jī 積 emphasises the cumulative results of concentration.

  • vtoNconcentrate (strength or effort) on
安住   ān zhù OC: qaan dos MC: ʔɑn ɖi̯o 2 Attributions
  • VPiresultativefind complete peace of mind
  • VPtoNresultativeBUDDH: constantly maintain, remain focussed on; continue to concentrate on
止觀   zhǐ guān OC: kljɯʔ koon MC: tɕɨ kʷɑn 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsycharrested>focussed observation> spiritual concentration as a Buddhist method of self-cultivation
無相三昧   wú xiàng sān mèi OC: ma sqaŋs saam mɯɯds MC: mi̯o si̯ɐŋ sɑm muo̝i 2 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: kind of meditative absorption: samādhi of no-mark, formless samādhi (this refers to a state of concentration where all differences of forms/features typical for constituents of extistence are transcended); skr. animitthaḥ-cetaḥ-samādhiḥ
修攝   xiū shè OC: sqlɯw qhljeb MC: sɨu ɕiɛp 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeBUDDH: cultivate/exercise and focus (one's mind) > concentrate
正受   zhèng shòu OC: tjeŋs djuʔ MC: tɕiɛŋ dʑɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: concentration, meditative absorption; skr. samādhi
留心   liú xīn OC: b-ru slɯm MC: lɨu sim 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNturn one's attention to; concentrate on; be careful about (with the object marked by a coverbal construction)
精心   jīng xīn OC: tseŋ slɯm MC: tsiɛŋ sim 1 Attribution
  • VPadVin a concentrated way; concentrating one's mind
滅盡定   miè jìn dìng OC: med dzinʔ deeŋs MC: miɛt dzin deŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: attainment of cessation, mental state of absorption where all functions of the mind come to a complete halt; skr. nirodha-samāpatti
風三昧   fēng sān mèi OC: plum saam mɯɯds MC: puŋ sɑm muo̝i 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: kind of samādhi: Wind Samādhi (in which one generates a violent wind which tears one's body to pieces; see also fēngfènxùn sānmèi 風奮迅三昧)
不用處定   bù yòng chù dìng OC: pɯʔ k-loŋs qhljas deeŋs MC: pi̯ut ji̯oŋ tɕhi̯ɤ deŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: kind of samādhi; see 無所有處定
楞嚴三昧   léng yán sān mèi OC: rɯɯŋ ŋɡam saam mɯɯds MC: ləŋ ŋi̯ɐm sɑm muo̝i 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychBUDDH: a kind of contemplative concentration, the Sūraṃgama-saṃādhi
無諍三昧   wú zhèng sān mèi OC: ma skreeŋs saam mɯɯds MC: mi̯o ʈʂɣɛŋ sɑm muo̝i 1 Attribution

wú zhēng sānmèi

  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: No-conflict samādhi (a state of mind in which there is no opposition to others, being one of the characterstics of 'the foremost among men'); VIMALAKIRTI: 得無證三昧人中最為第一; SANSKRIT araṇā-vihāriṇām agryaḥ ?
願智三昧   yuàn zhì sān mèi OC: ŋɡons tes saam mɯɯds MC: ŋi̯ɐn ʈiɛ sɑm muo̝i 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: type of samādhi: 'Wish-to-Know Samādhi' (in this state of concentration one has the ability to know everything what one wishes)
風奮迅三昧   fēng fèn xùn sān mèi mèi OC: plum pɯns sɯns saam mɯɯds MC: puŋ pi̯un sʷin sɑm muo̝i 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: Wind-flying-quick Samādhi > 'Wheerl Wind Samādhi' (concentration in which one generates a violent wind which tears the body to pieces; see also fēng sānmèi 風三昧)
非想非非想天   fēi xiǎng fēi fēi xiǎng xiǎng OC: pɯl sqaŋʔ pɯl pɯl sqaŋʔ lʰiin MC: pɨi si̯ɐŋ pɨi pɨi si̯ɐŋ then 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: state of neither perception nor non-perception, meditative state where there are no objects anymore, but still also no non-presence of objects. In the formless realm (wúsèjiè 無色界) this is the highest state and thus the highest form of existence in the three realms. However, a very subtle kind of thought is remaining and therefore this state is not identical with nirvāṇa; also referred to as the fourth heaven in the formless realm (see also 非想非非想處); skr. naiva-saṃj%nā-nāsaṃjnā-āyatana; PALI neva-sa%n%nā-nāsa%n%nā-āyatana
風輪奮迅三昧   fēng lún fèn xùn sān sān OC: plum ɡ-run pɯns sɯns saam mɯɯds MC: puŋ lʷin pi̯un sʷin sɑm muo̝i 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: kind of samādhi (see 風三昧) (this samādhi mentioned in the text is probably a mix up of fēngfènxùn sānmèi 風奮迅三昧 and fēnglún sānmèi 風輪三昧)
   zhù OC: tjos MC: tɕi̯o 0 Attributions
  • viconcentrate on
聚 / 聚   jù OC: sɡos MC: dzi̯o jù OC: sɡoʔ MC: dzi̯o 0 Attributions
  • vtoNconcentrate 聚精會神
停心   tíng xīn OC: deeŋ slɯm MC: deŋ sim 0 Attributions
  • VPiactBUDDH: stop the mind (this refers to a traditional meditation practice)
入定   rù dìng OC: njub deeŋs MC: ȵip deŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPienter into a trance of concentration; enter samādhi
執一   zhí yī OC: tjib qliɡ MC: tɕip ʔit 0 Attributions
  • VPiactconcentrate on one thing
專一   zhuān yī OC: tjon qliɡ MC: tɕiɛn ʔit 0 Attributions
  • NPabactone-sided concentration; one-dimensionality
攝念   shè niàn OC: qhljeb mɢlɯɯms MC: ɕiɛp nem 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNconcentrate one's thoughts on
等持   děng chí OC: k-lɯɯŋʔ ɡrlɯ MC: təŋ ɖɨ 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: concentration, meditative absorption (see the standard terms dìng 定 and sānmèi 三昧); SANSKRIT samādhi
三摩地   sān mó dì OC: saam maal lils MC: sɑm mʷɑ di 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: concentration, meditative absorption (see the standard terms dìng 定 and sānmèi 三昧); SANSKRIT samādhi
欲界定   yù jiè dìng OC: k-loɡ kreeds deeŋs MC: ji̯ok kɣɛi deŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: concentration of the mind where there is no absolute freedom from passions; SANSKRIT kāma-dhyāna, kāma-avacara-samādhi
色界定   sè jiè dìng OC: sqrɯɡ kreeds deeŋs MC: ʂɨk kɣɛi deŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: concentrations in the realm of form (state of mind free from passions, but accompanied by a sensation of physical well-being); SANSKRIT rūpa-avacara-samādhi
一行三昧   yī xíng sān mèi OC: qliɡ ɢraaŋ saam mɯɯds MC: ʔit ɦɣaŋ sɑm muo̝i 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: One-Practice samādhi (in LENGQIE SHIZI JI defined as 'fixing one's awareness on ultimate reality; related to the term yīxiàng 一相)
四無色定   sì wú sè dìng OC: plids ma sqrɯɡ deeŋs MC: si mi̯o ʂɨk deŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the four (meditative) attainments of non-form; SANSKRIT catur-ārūpya-samāpatti; PALI catasso āruppa-samāpattiyo
專心壹意   zhuān xīn yī yì OC: tjon slɯm qid qɯɡs MC: tɕiɛn sim ʔit ʔɨ 0 Attributions
  • VPiactconcentrate
心一境性   xīn yī jìng xìng OC: slɯm qliɡ kraŋʔ seŋs MC: sim ʔit kɣaŋ siɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: onepointedness of mind > concentration; SANSKRIT citta-ekāgratā; PALI citta ssa ekaggatā
無用處定   wú yòng chù dìng OC: ma k-loŋs qhljas deeŋs MC: mi̯o ji̯oŋ tɕhi̯ɤ deŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistDELETE
禪波羅蜜   chán bō luó mì OC: djan paal b-raal mbiɡ MC: dʑiɛn pʷɑ lɑ mit 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the perfection of concentration/mediation (one of the Six Perferctions of a Bodhisattva, liùdù 六度; see also chándìng 禪定); SANSKRIT dhyāna-pāramitā

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: