ALONE  單獨

ONE AND NOT TOGETHER.
BY ONESELFON ONE'S OWNALL ALONESOLITARYSINGLESINGLYSOLOSOLUSUNESCORTEDUNACCOMPANIEDPARTNERLESSCOMPANIONLESS
Antonymy

TOGETHER

See also

ONLYONLYLONELY

Kind Of

ONE

Old Chinese Criteria

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[NEGATIVE/POSITIVE]

1. Dān 單 (ant. qún 群 "in a group") has no emotional nuances and simply refers to the single member of a set.

[GENERAL]

2. Dú 獨 (ant. ǒu 偶 "as a pair") usually has no nuances of loneliness, but can sometimes come to connote an intense feeling of personal uniqueness. (LAO)

[GENERAL], [NEGATIVE!]

3. Gū 孤 (ant. zhòng 眾 "as a large group", but this lacks the emotional nuance of the counterpart) tends to connote feelings of loneliness and/or of being bereaved or suffering under the absence of associates in the place where one is.

[NEGATIVE+]

4. Tè 特 "alone" (etymologically related to dān 單 ) is abstract and conceptual and often emphasises the positively valued absence of other members in a general set.

[POSITIVE!]

5. Guǎ 寡 refers to the state of being alone ore bereaved which is currently referred to in polite speech by rulers. See also BEREAVED.

[NEGATIVE]

Modern Chinese Criteria

一個人

獨自

單獨

獨立

獨力

單身

孤單

孤獨

孤寂

伶仃 (lit) refers to solitary helplessness.

幽獨

寂寂 (lit) refers to solitary sadness.

只身

一身

獨身

光桿兒 (coll)

伶俜 (obs) refers to solitary sadness.

孤零零

孤苦伶仃

伶仃孤苦

形影相吊

形單影只

煢煢孑立

孑然一身

塊然一身

孤家寡人

舉目無親

六親無靠

無依無靠

單槍匹馬

匹馬單槍

離群索居

孤立無援

顧影自憐

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

Old Chinese Contrasts

LEIBNIZ 6.4 P. 31: U n i c u s est si unus ejus denominationis assignari potest, non alius. S o l u s est unicus in aliquo loco vel tempore (vel generalius: Si A est B, et quod

non est A non est B, dicitur S o l u m A esse B).

APRESJAN 1980 Anglo-russkij sinonimicheskij slovar' 31

alone, solitary, lonly, lone, lonsesome, forlorn, desoate

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 13.33

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.869

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.407

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.403.365

UNIQUE.SEUL

SINGER 2002 Thesaurus proverbiorum medii aevi 1.59

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 79B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vadV : 49
  • vadN : 12
  • VPi : 9
  • vi : 6
  • VPadV : 4
  • v[adN] : 3
  • nadN : 2
  • NP[adN] : 2
  • n : 1
  • vi.red : 1
  • VPadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 21
  • 禮記 : 12
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 春秋左傳 : 5
  • 孟子 : 5
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 論語 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 天中記 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   dú OC: dooɡ MC: duk 48 Attributions

Dú 獨 (ant. ǒu 偶 "as a pair") usually has no nuances of loneliness, but can sometimes come to connote an intense feeling of personal uniqueness. (LAO) [GENERAL], [NEGATIVE!]

  • vadNquantifierindependent; single, non-double; separate (action)
  • vadSalone
  • vadVnegative(negatively:) alone, isolated; unaided by others; off your own bat; on your own initiative
  • vadVpositive(positive:) all on one's own, independently, relying on oneself only; under four eyes
  • vadVas the only one; as one person
  • vibe alone
   tè OC: ɡ-lɯɯɡ MC: dək 16 Attributions

Tè 特 "alone" (etymologically related to dān 單) is abstract and conceptual and often emphasises the positively valued absence of other members in a general set. [POSITIVE!]

  • nsubjectone who is alone, isolated
  • vadNsingle, not member of a whole set; isolated
  • vadVon one's own; by oneself; particularly
  • vibe singular, isolated; be unique
   dān OC: taan MC: tɑn 4 Attributions

Dān 單 (ant. qún 群 "in a group") has no emotional nuances and simply refers to the single member of a set. [GENERAL]

  • nadNsingle; single-layered
  • v[adN]nonreferentialindividual single person
  • vioriginally perhaps single-layered cloth: non-double, single, non-complex
獨自   dú zì OC: dooɡ sblids MC: duk dzi 4 Attributions
  • VPadNsole, single, alone
  • VPadValone, in solitude, all by oneself
孤特   gū tè OC: kʷaa ɡ-lɯɯɡ MC: kuo̝ dək 3 Attributions
  • VPibe all alone, be completely isolated
孤獨   gū dú OC: kʷaa dooɡ MC: kuo̝ duk 2 Attributions
  • VPadValone, all on one's own
  • VPichangebecome quite isolated
煢獨   qióng dú OC: ɡʷleŋ dooɡ MC: giɛŋ duk 2 Attributions
  • NP[adN]somebody who is alone and without anyone to turn to for support
  • VPibe bereft of friends and supporters
   jiè OC: kreeds MC: kɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • v[adN]N=humone who is isolated
  • vadVbe on one's own, be isolated from others ZHUANG 介而離山 "when it leaven the mountain on its own" ZHANG HENG 思玄:孑不群而介立
   qióng OC: ɡʷeŋ MC: giɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • vi.redbe all alone; helpless; deserted; without help (P: same as 惸, 煢)
   kuò OC: khʷaaɡ MC: khɑk 1 Attribution
  • vibe alone and deserted
   kuàng OC: khʷaaŋs MC: khɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • vadNsingle, unattached (of men)
一身   yī shēn OC: qliɡ qhjin MC: ʔit ɕin 1 Attribution
  • VPisingle body > be by oneself, alone
孑然   jié rán OC: ked njen MC: kiɛt ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPadVall alone [compare 介然 "all on one's own"]
  • VPibe all alone
孤危   gū wēi OC: kʷaa ŋɡrol MC: kuo̝ ŋiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPiresultativebe isolated and as a result endangered
獨立   dú lì OC: dooɡ ɡ-rub MC: duk lip 1 Attribution
  • VPadNisolated
  • VPibe isolated
   kuài  MC: khwojH  OC: khuuls  1 Attribution
  • vadVsolidly, in splendid isolation
   gū  MC: ku  OC: kʷaa  1 Attribution
  • vadVon one's/its own, all by oneself/itself; in a singular manner
孤陋   gū lòu MC: ku -- OC: kʷaa -- 1 Attribution
  • VPibe isolated and marginalised
   jié OC: ked MC: kiɛt 0 Attributions
  • vadVall alone Zhang Heng 思玄賦
   guǎ OC: kʷraaʔ MC: kɣɛ 0 Attributions

Guǎ 寡 refers to the state of being alone ore bereaved which is currently referred to in polite speech by rulers. See also BEREAVED. [NEGATIVE]

  • vadNlonely
   zhí OC: dɯɡ MC: ɖɨk 0 Attributions
  • vadNseperate; special; single
  • vibe seperate; by itself
抱景   bào jǐng MC: bawX kjaengX OC: buuʔ kraŋʔ 0 Attributions
  • VPi=抱影 embrace one's shadow> be on one's own, be independent 抱景特立
抱景   bào jǐng MC: bawX kjaengX OC: buuʔ kraŋʔ 0 Attributions
  • VPi=抱影 embrace one's shadow> be on one's own, be by oneself and independent 抱景特立
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vadVsolidly, in splendid isolation

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: