TEMPLE  寺廟

BUILDING USED FOR WORSHIP of DEITIES.
HOUSE OF GODHOUSE OF WORSHIPSHRINESANCTUARYCHURCHCATHEDRALMOSQUESYNAGOGUESHULARCHAIC FANE
Hypernym

BUILDING -> ARTEFACT -> THING -> OBJECT -> PRIME -> N/A

See also

SACRIFICE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most common word for an ancestral temple in ancient China was miào 廟, and this word refers to the royal ancestral temple as well as to the ancestral temples of feudal lords and senior officials and even ordinary shì 士 "gentlemen, freemen". The Son of Heaven had seven of these, feudal lords had five, dàfū 大夫 had three and ordinary freemen had one. Ordinary people sacrificed in the qǐn 寢 "back room (also used as bedroom)" where the altar would traditionally occupy the north-western corner.

2. Zōng 宗 "founding ancestor of a clan" is used by synecdoche to refer to the permanent ancestral temple where he is venerated together with his deceased successors. The word has an archaic flavour.

3. Tiāo 祧 is a technical term for a shrine, sometimes specifically a non-permanent shrine for a distant ancestor, a shrine that could be removed and replaced by a mere altar. In the common combination zōng tiā1o 宗祧 it would appear that tiāo 祧 refers to a shrine within the larger temple complex.

4. Cí 祠 referred originally to a small temple built near a grave where the deceased were venerated, but the term came to be used more generally to refer to a private family temple where both ancesters and other divinities of all kinds were venerated. These establishments could be very large in large clans, and very small in small clans.

5. The case of qǐn 寢 is historically very complex. Four uses of the word must be distinguished. A. Qǐn 寢 referred in Spring and Autumn times to a part of the miào 廟 attached to it at as a back-room qǐn 寢 which was a luxuriously appointed bedroom for the use of the ancestors, where these could sleep and where they were also served as if alive (although these concrete practices are first mentioned in Han sources). B. In Warring States times the qǐn 寢 was moved to the vicinity of royal tombs to serve as a place of worship. See TOMB. C. Also, the term referred to the back room behind the formal main hall in which the spirits were venerated (in private homes in the north-western corner).

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

SACRIFICE 6. 廟是立有祖先偶像以供奉祖先之建築,戰國以後泛指供奉神佛或歷史人物的建築。

“ 廟 ” ,通稱。

“ 祖 ” 指祖廟,強調始祖之內涵。

“ 宗 ” 是支族之祖的廟。禰,祭祀亡父的宗廟。

祧,遠祖、始祖之廟,強調其神主之不可遷移。

寢,宗廟中藏祖先衣冠的後殿,祖先神靈於此接受生活供奉;後移置於陵側,與廟分離。

祠堂,民間祭祀祖先或先賢的廟堂,漢代始盛。

Modern Chinese Criteria

寺廟

祠堂

宗祠

享堂

太廟

宗廟

世室

佛殿

殿

殿堂

大雄寶殿

廟宇

孔廟

文廟

寺院

佛寺

蕭寺

禪林

禪房

伽藍

蘭若

招提

庵堂

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 22.13

  • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

    TEMPLE

    templum refers properly the temple, together with consecreated environs, and the word denotes specifically a great temple to one of the principal gods.

    fanum and delubrum refer to smaller temples to an inferior god or a hero.

    aedes refers to the main building of the temple only.

    sac ellum refers to a consecrated place without the building, with merely an altar.

  • 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao ( HUANG JINGUI 1995) p. 214/971

  • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

    TEMPLUM

  • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 220

  • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 4.1292

  • 古辭辨 Gu ci bian ( WANG FENGYANG 1993) p. 335

  • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 832

    廟,祧

    1. We still need to investigate whether the usages where tia1o 祧 would appear to be used

  • Encyclopedia of Religion ( JONES 2005) p.

    TEMPLE, SHRINE

  • Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages ( DE VAAN 2008) p.

    aedes, -is 'dwelling-place; temple' [f /] (Lex XII, Andr.+; nom.sg. also aedis)

    Derivatives: aedicula 'small room, small house' (P1.+); aedilis (P1.+) 'magistrate,

    aedile' (Elog.Scip. aidilis), aedilicius 'of or connected with an aedile' (P1.+), aedilitas

    'the office of an aedile' (P1.+); aedificare 'to build' (P1.+), aedificium 'building'

    (P1.+), aedificator 'builder' (Cato+), aedificatio 'building' (Cato+); aeditu/imus 'who

    has charge of a temple' (P1.+).

  • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.377.332

    TEMPLE.EGLISE

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.330

  • Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography ( ROBERTS 1998) p. 781

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP : 74
  • n : 65
  • n{PLACE}adV : 4
  • NPadV : 2
  • NPpr : 2
  • npost-Npr : 1
  • NP{vadN} : 1
  • npost=Npr : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 34
  • 賢愚經 : 17
  • 祖堂集 : 17
  • 禮記 : 14
  • 韓非子 : 10
  • 呂氏春秋 : 9
  • 論語 : 8
  • 管子 : 5
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 翻譯名義集 : 1

Words

宗廟   zōng miào OC: tsuuŋ mraws MC: tsuo̝ŋ miɛu 32 Attributions
  • NPancestral temples, temples for the ancestors (symbols of the nation, see this word under NATION)
  • NPsingularancestral temple
  • NPadVin one's ancestral temples
   miào OC: mraws MC: miɛu 18 Attributions

The most common word for an ancestral temple in ancient China was miào 廟, and this word refers to the royal ancestral temple as well as to the ancestral temples of feudal lords and senior officials and even ordinary shì 士 "gentlemen, freemen". The Son of Heaven had seven of these, feudal lords had five, dàfū 大夫 had three and ordinary freemen had one. Ordinary people sacrificed in the qǐn 寢 "back room (also used as bedroom)" where the altar would traditionally occupy the north-western corner.

  • n{PLACE}adVin the ancestral temple
  • nancestral temple (especially place of worship for the former kings or former rulers) and centre of state ritual
  • npost-Nprthe ancestral temple of Npr
   jìng OC: tseŋs MC: tsiɛŋ 17 Attributions
  • NPBUDDH: abode for the cultivation of purity; temple, monastery
   tiāo OC: kh-leew MC: theu 12 Attributions

Tiāo 祧 is a technical term for a shrine, sometimes specifically a non-permanent shrine for a distant ancestor, a shrine that could be removed and replaced by a mere altar. In the common combination zōng tiā1o 宗祧 it would appear that tiāo 祧 refers to a shrine within the larger temple complex.

  • ntemporary shrine, sometimes specifically for remote ancestors
   zōng OC: tsuuŋ MC: tsuo̝ŋ 10 Attributions

Zōng 宗 "founding ancestor of a clan" is used by synecdoche to refer to the permanent ancestral temple where he is venerated together with his deceased successors. The word has an archaic flavour.

  • nOBI: ancestral temple; SHI: ancestral temple of the clan
大廟 / 太廟   dà miào OC: daads mraws MC: dɑi miɛu tài miào OC: thaads mraws MC: thɑi miɛu 8 Attributions

dài miào dài miào

  • NPcentral ancestral temple of the state
   tǎ OC: kh-laab MC: thɑp 7 Attributions
  • nBUDDH: pagoda SANSKRIT stūpa
   gōng OC: kuŋ MC: kuŋ 6 Attributions
  • nancestral temple
   sì OC: sɢlɯs MC: zɨ 6 Attributions
  • ndwelling for a senior official (post-Han: religious building; Buddhist temple)BUDDH: Buddhist temple or monastery
  • npost=Nprthe monastery Npr; the temple Npr
庵 / 庵   è OC: qoob MC: ʔəp ān OC: qoom MC: ʔəm 4 Attributions
  • nsmall house with rund thatched roof (post-Han: small Buddhist temple)
叢林   cóng lín OC: dzooŋ ɡ-rɯm MC: dzuŋ lim 3 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: forest trees > Buddhist monastery
寢廟   qǐn miào OC: skhimʔ mraws MC: tshim miɛu 3 Attributions
  • NPceremonial hall in the temple where the ancestors rest, front hall together with back hall
道場   dào cháng OC: ɡ-luuʔ ɡrlaŋ MC: dɑu ɖi̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPBUDDH: place of the Way (Buddhism) > Buddhist monastery
  • NPfigurative"temple"
   zǔ OC: skaaʔ MC: tsuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • nancestral temple
   cí OC: sɢlɯ MC: zɨ 2 Attributions

Cí 祠 referred originally to a small temple built near a grave where the deceased were venerated, but the term came to be used more generally to refer to a private family temple where both ancesters and other divinities of all kinds were venerated. These establishments could be very large in large clans, and very small in small clans.

  • noriginally a small temple at which ancestors were formally venerated near a grave at publicly prescribed times; then in Han times: generally, place of worship for divinised personalitites; family temple
宗室   zōng shì OC: tsuuŋ qhljiɡ MC: tsuo̝ŋ ɕit 2 Attributions
  • NPancestral shrine
廟堂   miào táng OC: mraws daaŋ MC: miɛu dɑŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPancestral temple; the anestral temple
明堂   míng táng OC: mraŋ daaŋ MC: mɣaŋ dɑŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPprthe Bright Hall
郊廟   jiāo miào OC: kreew mraws MC: kɣɛu miɛu 2 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialtemples of all kinds
   qǐn OC: skhimʔ MC: tshim 1 Attribution

The case of qǐn 寢 is historically very complex. Four uses of the word must be distinguished. A. Qǐn 寢 referred in Spring and Autumn times to a part of the miào 廟 attached to it at as a back-room qǐn 寢 which was a luxuriously appointed bedroom for the use of the ancestors, where these could sleep and where they were also served as if alive (although these concrete practices are first mentioned in Han sources). B. In Warring States times the qǐn 寢 was moved to the vicinity of royal tombs to serve as a place of worship. See TOMB. C. Also, the term referred to the back room behind the formal main hall in which the spirits were venerated (in private homes in the north-western corner).

  • nback room behind the formal main hall in which the spirits were venerated (in private homes in the north-western corner). At the back of the miào 廟, the qǐn 寢 was a luxuriously appointed bedroom for the use of the ancestors, where these could sleep and where they were also served as if alive, according to later accounts. 漢書,馮奉世傳, 注;漢書,韋玄成傳,注 CHECK [HJG]
   bēng OC: praaŋ MC: pɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • ntemple
   shí OC: djaɡ MC: dʑiɛk 1 Attribution
  • nsmall stone shrine
   ān OC: qoom MC: ʔəm 1 Attribution
  • nBUDDH: small Buddhist temple; hermitage
塔頭   tǎ tóu OC: kh-laab doo MC: thɑp du 1 Attribution
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: pagoda, memorial tower
太寢   tài qǐn OC: thaads skhimʔ MC: thɑi tshim 1 Attribution
  • NP{vadN}ancestral temple where all the ancestors find their repose, Great Hall of Repose for the Ancestors
禰廟   nǐ miào OC: m-liilʔ mraws MC: nei miɛu 1 Attribution
  • NPone's father's section in the ancestral temple
經行處   jīng xíng chù OC: keeŋ ɢraaŋ qhljas MC: keŋ ɦɣaŋ tɕhi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • NPBUDDH: place in which to take break during meditation; ambulatorium in Buddhist monastery [SK]
神宮   shén gōng MC: zyin -- OC: ɢljin -- 1 Attribution
  • NPholy shrine
   nǐ OC: m-liilʔ MC: nei 0 Attributions
  • ntemple to one's deceased father
   guàn OC: koons MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • nTaoist temple
佛圖   fó tú OC: bɯd daa MC: bi̯ut duo̝ 0 Attributions
  • NPBuddhist temple
天祠   tiān cí OC: lʰiin sɢlɯ MC: then zɨ 0 Attributions
  • NPtemple for sacrifices to Heaven
祠堂   cí táng OC: sɢlɯ daaŋ MC: zɨ dɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • NP{N1adN2}HANSHU: complex building housing the clan temple in which divinised personalities as well as ancestors were venerated See outstanding illustration of a large scale example in HUANG TU 215.1. There is a late unattributed picture in HYDCD. For ordinary families the cí 祠 could be much smaller.
   mén OC: mɯɯn MC: muo̝n 0 Attributions
  • nancestral temple
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPholy shrine

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: