CITIZEN  公民

ADULT who HAS DEFINED RIGHTS AND DUTIES BECAUSE s/he BELONGS TO a STATE.
Taxonoymy

BOURGEOIS

Kind Of

ADULT

Old Chinese Criteria

The insistution of legal citizenship was linked to tax-paying duty and military duty, not in terms of any specific civic rights. The concrete definition of citizenship will have differed from state to state in Warring States times, and the importance of the definition will have depended on the degree of detailedness of public registers. In China, there was no central and important institution like the bundle of rights and duties of the civis Romanus. The civis Romanus defined himself in terms of rights. It would appear that the Chinese citizen defined himself as a citizen (less enthusiastically) through his duties.

An expression like 齊人 had three meanings in ancient China:

1. commonly: a man from Qí, people from Qí;

2. (in the ANNALS (CQ) and other annalistic contexts: the senior citizens of Qí, the aristocracy of Qí;

3. from Warring States onwards: citizens of Qí.

It is the third notion that badly needs close investigation.

Modern Chinese Criteria

公民

平民

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.37

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

INHABITANT versus CITIZEN

incola is the mere inhabitant versus the citizen.

inquilinus refers to the owner of a house, also known as dominus.

colonus refers to the owner of a piece of land.

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 134b

KOSELLECK 1972-97 Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe 1.672-725

LAUFFER 1981 Polites Soziale Typenbegriffe

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.120.86

HABITANT.BEOURGEOIS.CITOYEN

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.353

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP[post-N] : 18
  • NP{N1&N2} : 16
  • NP : 14
  • NPadV : 8
  • NP{PRED} : 4

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 13
  • 春秋左傳 : 13
  • 戰國策 : 11
  • 呂氏春秋 : 9
  • 史記 : 4
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 管子 : 2
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 新序 : 1

Words

國人   guó rén OC: kʷɯɯɡ njin MC: kək ȵin 19 Attributions
  • NP[post-N]N=huminfluential inhabitants of the N's capital who are not bureaucrats and parts of the public sphere
  • NPadVas a person entitled to ride in a wheeled vehicle in particular a war chariot(??), as a citizen of senior status
  • NP[post-N]N=statecitizens of N; influential inhabitants of the N's capital
國士   guó shì OC: kʷɯɯɡ dzrɯʔ MC: kək ɖʐɨ 18 Attributions
  • NP{PRED}be a distinguished gentleman of the state; be a state hero
  • NPcolloquialdistinguished gentlemen of the state
  • NPindefinitea distinguished gentleman of the state
  • NPnonreferentiala distinguished gentleman of state; state hero
  • NPreferential"knight of state", finest distinguished gentleman of the state; state hero
  • NPadVobjectas a distinguished gentleman; state hero (object) 國士遇我
  • NPadVsubjectas a distinguished gentleman of the state; state hero
士民   shì mín OC: dzrɯʔ min MC: ɖʐɨ min 16 Attributions

refers to senior citizens (typically with a certain level of education) 范寧注:學習道藝者

  • NP{N1&N2}pluralcitizen; citizenry
主人   zhǔ rén OC: tjoʔ njin MC: tɕi̯o ȵin 7 Attributions
  • NPnative citizen (not kè rén 客人"foreigner")
  • NP{PRED}be native citizen

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: