CROSS OVER  度過

WALK ACROSS something.
TRAVEL ACROSSTRAVERSERANGE OVERNEGOTIATENAVIGATE
Hypernym

WALK -> MOVE -> CHANGE -> EVENT -> REALITY -> EXIST -> BE IN -> RELATION -> FEATURE -> OBJECT -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general current word for crossing over something is guò 過.

2. Dù 渡 typically refers to crossing water by foot or boat, and the word became exceedingly common from Han times onwards.

3. Shè 涉 typically refers to crossing water by foot.

4. Jīng 經 typically refers to crossing or passing through territory.

5. Lì 歷 refers to passing through territories or time spans. For the latter meaning the character 曆 came to be used in later times.

6. Yuè 越 and chāo 超 refer to leaping or striding across something. See also LEAP OVER

7. Kuà 跨 refers to striding across something, see LEAP OVER.

8. Jué 絕 refers in a somewhat elevated style to crossing a river or a desert by any means of transport.

9. Fàn 犯 refers to managing to get across something that is hard to cross, but this usage is rare.

10. Háng 杭/航 is an ancient word for crossing a river by ferry.

Modern Chinese Criteria

渡河

渡江

擺渡

涉 refers to wading through a river, typically at a ford.

越過

穿過

通過

穿

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 12.77

  • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 274

  • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 603

    渡,度

    1. It is indeed striking that in pre-Qin times the the verb for to cross was always written du4 度. But from Han times onwards du4 渡 was already very common. This does indicate that some of the orthography of the older texts does retain ancient features of the writing system, even in the received literature.

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 458

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 110
  • vt(oN) : 29
  • vt+prep+N : 8
  • VPtoN : 4
  • vt0oN : 2
  • nab : 2

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 38
  • 論衡 : 17
  • 祖堂集 : 14
  • 史記 : 13
  • 韓非子 : 10
  • 百喻經 : 7
  • 論語 : 6
  • 淮南子 : 5
  • 楚辭 : 5
  • 管子 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 穆天子傳 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 黃帝內經 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 合陰陽釋文 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

渡 / 度   dù OC: ɡ-laaɡs MC: duo̝ dù OC: ɡ-laaɡs MC: duo̝ 33 Attributions

Dù 渡 typically refers to crossing water by foot or boat, and the word became exceedingly common from Han times onwards. Dù 渡 typically refers to crossing water by foot or boat, and the word became exceedingly common from Han times onwards.

  • vtoNcross river by boat or ferry; derived general sense: to cross (also by foot at a ford)
  • vt+prep+Ncrooss over; ferry over
  • vtoNpassivebe crossed 不可渡
  • vt(oN)cross over the contextually determinate place
  • vtoNN=timepass through (some number of years etc)
  • vtoNN=placecross over to (the target place)
  • vttoN1.+N2permissiveallow N1 to get across the contextually determinate N2
   guò OC: klools MC: kʷɑ 29 Attributions

The most general current word for crossing over something is guò 過.

  • vt(oN)get across a contextually determinate place N
  • vt0oNfigurativeit goes past (an appointed time) 過期 "it went past the appointed time, the appointed time passed"; spend (time)
  • vtoNguo1: cross over (a river, a bridge); transgress (a territory); pass through; pass by (a place or a person) PRONOUNCIATION!
  • vtoNfigurativecross over a time period > spend (a day; one's days)
  • vtoNobject=goalto cross over to
   jì OC: tsiils MC: tsei 26 Attributions
  • vt(oN)cross over a contextually determinate place; cut across
  • vtoNgo across, try to get across; traverse, succeed to get across
   yuè OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 11 Attributions

Yuè 越, yú 逾/踰, and chāo 超 refer to leaping or striding across something. See JUMP

  • vt+prep+Nfigurativecross over > go beyond the (categorial) borders of, go beyond
  • vtoNleap over, leap across (an obstacle); generally: cross (a road etc.; a border); go beyond
   shè OC: djeb MC: dʑiɛp 10 Attributions

Shè 涉 typically refers to crossing water by foot.

  • vt(oN)wade across the contextually determinate object
  • vtoNwade across
  • vtoNfigurativecome to touch upon the topic of, come to relate to
  • vtoNpassivebe crossed
   xǐ OC: selʔ MC: siɛ 7 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Ncross over, move across
  • vtoNcross over, move across
   lì OC: reeɡ MC: lek 7 Attributions

Lì 歷 refers to passing through territories or time spans. For the latter meaning the character 曆 came to be used in later times.

  • vt+prep+Nto pass through
  • vtoNto pass through
  • vtoNfigurativepass through (stages, ranks potential supporters)
   jīng OC: keeŋ MC: keŋ 7 Attributions

Jīng 經 typically refers to crossing or passing through territory.

  • nabactpassage through somewhere
  • vt+prep+Npass through (a time N)
  • vtoNpass through
  • vt+prep+NN=placecross over, pass through
   jué OC: dzod MC: dziɛt 6 Attributions

Jué 絕 refers in a somewhat elevated style to crossing a river or a desert by any means of transport.

  • vtoNcross (river); traverse
   chāo OC: khrlew MC: ʈhiɛu 4 Attributions

Yuè 越, yú 逾/踰, and chāo 超 refer to leaping or striding across something. See JUMP

  • vtoNjump over (the sea); pass over; jump on
  • vtoNfigurativecross over > transcend, go beyond, get passed
杭 / 肮   háng OC: ɡaaŋ MC: ɦɑŋ háng OC: ɡaaŋ MC: ɦɑŋ 2 Attributions

Háng 杭/航 is an ancient word for crossing a river by ferry. Háng 杭/航 is an ancient word for crossing a river by ferry.

  • vtoNSHI: cross by ferry
   tòu OC: lʰoos MC: thu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNpass through; penetrate through
   lì OC: b-rads MC: liɛi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNwade across with one's clothes on
   fàn OC: bomʔ MC: bi̯ɐm 1 Attribution

Fàn 犯 refers to managing to get across something that is hard to cross, but this usage is rare.

  • vtoNmanage to get across; get across
   yú OC: lo MC: ji̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNgo across, cross over
   chán OC: dan MC: ɖiɛn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfigurativetread upon and pass through
   píng OC: brɯŋ MC: bɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNwalk across
徙去   xǐ qù OC: selʔ khas MC: siɛ khi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativecross over
越度   yuè dù OC: ɢʷad ɡ-laaɡs MC: ɦi̯ɐt duo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNgo across, get across (mountains and rivers)
透過   tòu guò OC: lʰoos klools MC: thu kʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativepass through
通過   tōng guò OC: kh-looŋ klools MC: thuŋ kʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcross over to, stretch over to
   luàn OC: ɡ-roons MC: lʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcross (river etc) against the current
  • vt+prep+Ncross against the current 亂于河
   jiāo OC: kreew MC: kɣɛu 1 Attribution
  • vi2intersect, crisscross
  • nabfeatureintersection
   líng OC: b-rɯŋ MC: lɨŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcross over 渡過;逾越。 《戰國策·燕策》:“ 胡 與 越 人言語不相知,志意不相通,同舟而凌波,至其相救助如一也。”
   héng OC: ɡʷraaŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadVgoing straight across
  • vtoNcross horizontally
  • vtoNstativelie horizontally across
   jīn OC: tsin MC: tsin 0 Attributions
  • nadNferry- (man)
  • vtoNcross in a ford or shallow place in the river; cross by ferry
經過   jīng guò OC: keeŋ klools MC: keŋ kʷɑ 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)pass by the contextually determinate place[CA]

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: