CROSS OVER  度過

WALK ACROSS something.
TRAVEL ACROSSTRAVERSERANGE OVERNEGOTIATENAVIGATE
Taxonoymy

THROUGHTRANSCEND

Kind Of

WALK

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general current word for crossing over something is guò 過.

2. Dù 渡 typically refers to crossing water by foot or boat, and the word became exceedingly common from Han times onwards.

3. Shè 涉 typically refers to crossing water by foot.

4. Jīng 經 typically refers to crossing or passing through territory.

5. Lì 歷 refers to passing through territories or time spans. For the latter meaning the character 曆 came to be used in later times.

6. Yuè 越 and chāo 超 refer to leaping or striding across something. See also LEAP OVER

7. Kuà 跨 refers to striding across something, see LEAP OVER.

8. Jué 絕 refers in a somewhat elevated style to crossing a river or a desert by any means of transport.

9. Fàn 犯 refers to managing to get across something that is hard to cross, but this usage is rare.

10. Háng 杭/航 is an ancient word for crossing a river by ferry.

Modern Chinese Criteria

渡河

渡江

擺渡

涉 refers to wading through a river, typically at a ford.

越過

穿過

通過

穿

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 12.77

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 274

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 603

渡,度

1. It is indeed striking that in pre-Qin times the the verb for to cross was always written du4 度. But from Han times onwards du4 渡 was already very common. This does indicate that some of the orthography of the older texts does retain ancient features of the writing system, even in the received literature.

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 458

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 108
  • vt(oN) : 29
  • vt+prep+N : 8
  • VPtoN : 4
  • vt0oN : 2
  • nab : 2

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 38
  • 論衡 : 17
  • 祖堂集 : 14
  • 史記 : 13
  • 韓非子 : 10
  • 百喻經 : 7
  • 論語 : 6
  • 淮南子 : 5
  • 楚辭 : 5
  • 管子 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 黃帝內經 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 合陰陽釋文 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

渡 / 度   dù OC: ɡ-laaɡs MC: duo̝ dù OC: ɡ-laaɡs MC: duo̝ 33 Attributions

Dù 渡 typically refers to crossing water by foot or boat, and the word became exceedingly common from Han times onwards. Dù 渡 typically refers to crossing water by foot or boat, and the word became exceedingly common from Han times onwards.

  • vtoNcross river by boat or ferry; derived general sense: to cross (also by foot at a ford)
  • vt+prep+Ncrooss over; ferry over
  • vtoNpassivebe crossed 不可渡
  • vt(oN)cross over the contextually determinate place
  • vtoNN=timepass through (some number of years etc)
  • vtoNN=placecross over to (the target place)
  • vttoN1.+N2permissiveallow N1 to get across the contextually determinate N2
   guò OC: klools MC: kʷɑ 29 Attributions

The most general current word for crossing over something is guò 過.

  • vt(oN)get across a contextually determinate place N
  • vt0oNfigurativeit goes past (an appointed time) 過期 "it went past the appointed time, the appointed time passed"; spend (time)
  • vtoNguo1: cross over (a river, a bridge); transgress (a territory); pass through; pass by (a place or a person) PRONOUNCIATION!
  • vtoNfigurativecross over a time period > spend (a day; one's days)
  • vtoNobject=goalto cross over to
   jì OC: tsiils MC: tsei 26 Attributions
  • vt(oN)cross over a contextually determinate place; cut across
  • vtoNgo across, try to get across; traverse, succeed to get across
   yuè OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 11 Attributions

Yuè 越, yú 逾/踰, and chāo 超 refer to leaping or striding across something. See JUMP

  • vt+prep+Nfigurativecross over > go beyond the (categorial) borders of, go beyond
  • vtoNleap over, leap across (an obstacle); generally: cross (a road etc.; a border); go beyond
   shè OC: djeb MC: dʑiɛp 10 Attributions

Shè 涉 typically refers to crossing water by foot.

  • vt(oN)wade across the contextually determinate object
  • vtoNwade across
  • vtoNfigurativecome to touch upon the topic of, come to relate to
  • vtoNpassivebe crossed
   xǐ OC: selʔ MC: siɛ 7 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Ncross over, move across
  • vtoNcross over, move across
   lì OC: reeɡ MC: lek 7 Attributions

Lì 歷 refers to passing through territories or time spans. For the latter meaning the character 曆 came to be used in later times.

  • vt+prep+Nto pass through
  • vtoNto pass through
  • vtoNfigurativepass through (stages, ranks potential supporters)
   jīng OC: keeŋ MC: keŋ 7 Attributions

Jīng 經 typically refers to crossing or passing through territory.

  • nabactpassage through somewhere
  • vt+prep+Npass through (a time N)
  • vtoNpass through
  • vt+prep+NN=placecross over, pass through
   jué OC: dzod MC: dziɛt 4 Attributions

Jué 絕 refers in a somewhat elevated style to crossing a river or a desert by any means of transport.

  • vtoNcross (river); traverse
   chāo OC: khrlew MC: ʈhiɛu 4 Attributions

Yuè 越, yú 逾/踰, and chāo 超 refer to leaping or striding across something. See JUMP

  • vtoNjump over (the sea); pass over; jump on
  • vtoNfigurativecross over > transcend, go beyond, get passed
杭 / 肮   háng OC: ɡaaŋ MC: ɦɑŋ háng OC: ɡaaŋ MC: ɦɑŋ 2 Attributions

Háng 杭/航 is an ancient word for crossing a river by ferry. Háng 杭/航 is an ancient word for crossing a river by ferry.

  • vtoNSHI: cross by ferry
   tòu OC: lʰoos MC: thu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNpass through; penetrate through
   lì OC: b-rads MC: liɛi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNwade across with one's clothes on
   fàn OC: bomʔ MC: bi̯ɐm 1 Attribution

Fàn 犯 refers to managing to get across something that is hard to cross, but this usage is rare.

  • vtoNmanage to get across; get across
   yú OC: lo MC: ji̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNgo across, cross over
   chán OC: dan MC: ɖiɛn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfigurativetread upon and pass through
   píng OC: brɯŋ MC: bɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNwalk across
徙去   xǐ qù OC: selʔ khas MC: siɛ khi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativecross over
越度   yuè dù OC: ɢʷad ɡ-laaɡs MC: ɦi̯ɐt duo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNgo across, get across (mountains and rivers)
透過   tòu guò OC: lʰoos klools MC: thu kʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativepass through
通過   tōng guò OC: kh-looŋ klools MC: thuŋ kʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcross over to, stretch over to
   luàn OC: ɡ-roons MC: lʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcross (river etc) against the current
  • vt+prep+Ncross against the current 亂于河
   jiāo OC: kreew MC: kɣɛu 1 Attribution
  • vi2intersect, crisscross
  • nabfeatureintersection
   líng OC: b-rɯŋ MC: lɨŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcross over 渡過;逾越。 《戰國策·燕策》:“ 胡 與 越 人言語不相知,志意不相通,同舟而凌波,至其相救助如一也。”
   héng OC: ɡʷraaŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadVgoing straight across
  • vtoNcross horizontally
  • vtoNstativelie horizontally across
   jīn OC: tsin MC: tsin 0 Attributions
  • nadNferry- (man)
  • vtoNcross in a ford or shallow place in the river; cross by ferry
經過   jīng guò OC: keeŋ klools MC: keŋ kʷɑ 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)pass by the contextually determinate place[CA]

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: