COINCIDENCE  偶然

HAPPEN NOT BEING EXPECTED FOR WHICH ONE HAS NO EXPLANATION.[[NB incidentally: The Epicurean aleatoric view of natural history.]]
ACCIDENTALSERENDIPITOUSALEATORICINCIDENTALCOINCIDENTALCONTINGENTCHANCECONTINGENCYACCIDENTCHANCESERENDIPITYFORTUITYPROVIDENCEHAPPENSTANCEFATEA FLUKE
Antonymy

NECESSITY

See also

OPPORTUNITYINSPIRATION

Kind Of

HAPPEN

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for contingency is shì 適 (ant. bì 必 "necessarily").

2. Huì 會 is an historian's technical term for coincidence which became current in Han times, and the word is adsentential.

3. O ㄆ偶 (ant. bì 必 "necessarily") is a rather rare word specifically focussing on the arbitary contingency of something happening.

4. Guǒ 果 "in the event" focusses on the fact that something that might not have happened but was expected to happen, did in fact happen.

5. Zú 卒 and jìng 竟 focus on something happening in the end that might never have happened at all.

Modern Chinese Criteria

偶然

偶爾

偶發

未免 "well and truly"

恰巧

剛巧

湊巧

可巧

碰巧

偏巧

趕巧

正巧

恰好

正好

剛好

可好

恰恰

剛剛

可可兒的

正是時候

適逢其會

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. The non-necessary event may be construed as conforming to expectations (guǒ 果 ), or it may be construed as pure chance (huì 會, ǒu 偶 ).

2. The non-necessary event may be construed as narratively significant (huì 會, guǒ 果 ), or it may be primarily construed as arbitrary (ǒu 偶 ).

3. The non-neccesary event may be construed as an interesting or surprising coincidence (huì 會 ), or it may simply be described as a non-necessary event (ǒu 偶 ).

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 216

CHANCE

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 495

CONTINGENS, qvod cum aliter essse potuisset, aliter factum est.

Concurrunt 1. aliqvid 2. diversos habens modos. 3. Determinatio vuluntate aut casu facta, ut hoc modo fit.

Ax.

1. Contingentia rerum datur qvia modi plures dantur, qvo res esse possunt.

2. Contingentia est in copia rerum, qvae aliter aut cum alijs copulari poterant.

3. Contingentia possibilium est.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 103

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

FORTUNA/CASUS

VICISSITUDO RERUM

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache III497

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 2.1563

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 12.1408

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 450

會,適

1. It is true that while there is one instance of shi4 hui4 適會 there seems to be no case of hui4 shi4 會適.

2. Whereas shi4 適 often intervenes between subject and predicate, hui4 會 alone can always be construed as adsentential, as far as we I can see. This marks a significant difference between these words.

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

CHANCE

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.80.57

HASARD.FORTUNE.SORT.DESTIN

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 542

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vadV : 48
  • vadS : 17
  • padS : 12
  • vt+V[0] : 6
  • VPadV : 5
  • VPi : 3
  • nadS : 2
  • PPadV : 1
  • VPadS : 1
  • VPt0oS : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • padV.postN{SUBJ} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 21
  • 論衡 : 14
  • 春秋左傳 : 10
  • 百喻經 : 10
  • 史記 : 8
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 管子 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1

Words

   shì OC: qljeɡ MC: ɕiɛk 25 Attributions

The current general word for contingency is shì 適 (ant. bì 必 "necessarily").

  • vadSas it happened, in the event; as things happen to be, by chance
  • vadVas it turned out in the event; by some coincidence 士適出 "this officer happened to leave the house".
   zú OC: skud MC: tsʷit 17 Attributions

Zú 卒 and jìng 竟 focus on something happening in the end that might never have happened at all.

  • vadVin the end, finally, as it turned out
   huò OC: ɡʷɯɯɡ MC: ɦək 12 Attributions
  • padSby some chance, by any chance, as it happened
   huì OC: ɡloobs MC: ɦɑi 12 Attributions

Huì 會 is an historian's technical term for coincidence which became current in Han times, and the word is adsentential.

  • vadSby coincidence, as it happened; by chance; it so happened that S
  • vadVas it happens; as the case is; certainly?
  • vt+V[0]by chance
   ǒu OC: ŋooʔ MC: ŋu 5 Attributions

Ǒu 偶 (ant. bì 必 "necessarily") is a rather rare word specifically focussing on the arbitary contingency of something happening.

  • vadVby chance; by pure chance; without planning; without proper planning
   qià OC: khroob MC: khɣɛp 5 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]happen to V, by chance, have the opportunity to (the V is usually a positive event: be so fortunate to V; but sometimes also neutralized) The word expresses that an action happens by coincidence. It probably originated during the Tang dynasty and is quite common in ZTJ. In BIANWEN there is also one example of the reduplicated form of the word qiàqià 恰恰 : 峻嶺高嶺總安致,恰恰偏布不容針。 (WANG ZHONGMIN 1957: 370). There is also one example of qiàhǎo 恰好 in ZTJ (ZTJ 3.079; WU: 242: 有僧問: “ 十二中時如何據驗? ” 師云: “ 恰好據驗。 ”)
   hū OC: hmɯɯd MC: huot 4 Attributions
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}as it happened
  • vadSby coincidence (probably there are many places where one mechanically translates this word as "suddenly" where "as it happened" and the like are preferable.)
自然   zì rán OC: sblids njen MC: dzi ȵiɛn 4 Attributions
  • VPadSby coincidence
  • VPadVcoincidentally
  • VPibe coincidental
   zhí OC: dɯɡs MC: ɖɨ 2 Attributions
  • nadSby coincidence, as it happened
   zāo OC: tsuu MC: tsɑu 2 Attributions
  • vadVby chance, as it happened
   jìng OC: kraŋs MC: kɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • vadVin the end APPEARS ALSO IN SYN. GROUP 'REALITY'
偶然   ǒu rán OC: ŋooʔ njen MC: ŋu ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPihappen to be as one is
偶適   ǒu shì OC: ŋooʔ qljeɡ MC: ŋu ɕiɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPadVby chance, without any human planning or other planning being involved
幸而   xìng ér OC: ɢreeŋʔ njɯ MC: ɦɣɛŋ ȵɨ 1 Attribution
  • PPadVby any chance
恰值   qià zhí OC: khroob dɯɡs MC: khɣɛp ɖɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPt0oSit happens to be that S; as it happens S; by coincidence S
會值   huì zhí OC: ɡloobs dɯɡs MC: ɦɑi ɖɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPadSby coincidence
果然   guǒ rán OC: kloolʔ njen MC: kʷɑ ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPadVin the end, as a result, as expected, really
適然   shì rán OC: qljeɡ njen MC: ɕiɛk ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPadNcontingent, fortuitous
  • NPabfactualcoincidence
邂逅   xiè hòu OC: ɡrees ɡoos MC: ɦɣɛ ɦu 1 Attribution
  • VPadVby coincidence
   kǒng OC: khoŋʔ MC: khi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
       kōng OC: khooŋ MC: khuŋ 0 Attributions
      偶會   ǒu huì OC: ŋooʔ ɡloobs MC: ŋu ɦɑi 0 Attributions
      • NPabmetaphysicalcoincidence
      適會   shì huì OC: qljeɡ ɡloobs MC: ɕiɛk ɦɑi 0 Attributions
      • NPadVby coincidence
         shí OC: ɡljɯ MC: dʑɨ 0 Attributions
      • nadVas it happened, by happenstance, by coincidence

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: