CUP  杯子

SMALL FOOD VESSEL USED for DRINKING from.
TEACUPCOFFEE CUPDEMITASSEMUGHISTORICAL CHALICE
Kind Of

FOOD VESSEL

Old Chinese Criteria

1. Bēi 杯 in Warring States and Han times referred to a shallow oval bowl with two ears used for wine, soup, broth etc.; it was made of lacquered wood, bronze, earthenware, jade, silver, and even glass. According to HUANG (1995: 951 - 952), the term was in that period also used for the deep beaker on a foot to drink wine from, which is known from archaeological finds; in textual evidence, there is no firm proof of it, but as regards the shape of the vessel which could only be used for drinking, it is highly probable.

2. Shāng 觴 is in late Warring States and Han times general term for a wine cup. It can often refer to bēi 杯. HUANG 1995: 955 - 956.

3. Y3ǔ shāng 羽觴 (?? in HANYU DACIDIAN as hù shāng: see vol. 9, pp. 641) is mentioned as a wine cup in the texts of the late Warring States and Han periods; perhaps another term for bēi 杯 with two ears.

4. Zhī (I cannot find the character in the list) refers to the round cylindrical wine cup made of wood, lacquare, bronze, silver, or pottery:

5. Zhǎn 醆 / 盞 is in Han times rare term for small bēi 杯 (mentioned in FANGYAN).

6. Zhuó 酌 is a general term for a wine cup.

7. Jué 爵 is the term for Shang and Western Zhou bronze tripod with long spout to drink wine from, which was used on ceremonial occasions. Shape of the character read now as jué 爵 in the oracle bone and bronze inscriptions obviously refers to this kind of cup. There are also pottery vessels of this shape known from the Shang period. In late Western Zhou times, this type of vessel came out of use. Jué 爵 mentioned in the Eastern Zhou and Han texts can refer to each type of wine cup; according to Han sources jué 爵 should have room for one shēng 升 of wine[??? it seems to me that jué 爵 in the Eastern Zhou sometimes refers to the certain amount of wine drunk at once rather than to the concrete wine vessel???.

8. Jiǎ 斝 is generally used as a term for a bronze vessel with three legs and round opening which was used to heat and serve wine. This type of vessel was common in the Shang and Western Zhou periods and came out of use in the late Western Zhou. Attribution of the name to this kind of vessel is not certain, but probable. In the Eastern Zhou and Han texts, jiǎ 斝 refers to the wine vessel, the content of which should be greater than in the case of jué 爵. [???The word seems to be rather rare in the Eastern Zhou and Han, and it occurs (except one mention in ZUO] in texts like YILI, SHUOWEN, as well as in commentaries; it cannot be thus excluded that its usage is some kind of archaization.

9. Sǎn 散 refers to the same kind of vessel as jiǎ 斝.

10. Jiǎo 角 occurs rarely in the Eastern Zhou and Han texts, and it should refer to some kind of cup made originally of an animal horn or resembling it in a shape. Identification of this vessel remains uncertain, although there are horn-like vessels known from the Shang down to the Han. In archaeology, jiǎo 角 is used for the bronze wine tripod similar in a shape to jué 爵 but with two identical spouts on the opposite sides of an opening; this vessel was in use from the Shang down to the Western Zhou period.

11. Gū 觚 in the Eastern Zhou and Han texts refers to some kind of vessel with edges. Its identification is uncertain. In archeology, the term is used for the trumpet-like bronze cup which is known from the Shang and Western Zhou periods. There are also lacquered and pottery vessels of this type.

12. Gōng or guāng 觥 in SHIJING obviously refers to the drinking cup made of the rhinoceros horn or shaped like it. Later, it can be used for a large cup. In archaeology, the term traditionally refers to the large animal-like shaped bronze vessel known from the Shang and Western Zhou periods; but this attribution is probably mistaken.

13. Kē 搕 is a kind of (probably ordinary) cup to drink from referred to in ZUO.

Modern Chinese Criteria

杯子

盅子

茶杯

茶盅

茶盞

酒杯

酒盅

酒盞

玉舟

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 5.35

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

CUP

poculum refers to a drinking vessel, a usual cup for use at meals.

calix refers to a chalice, goblet, or beaker used at feasts.

scyphus, cantharus, cymbium, caligna are all foreign words, of Greek origin, denoting particular sorts of cups.

HUANG JINGUI 1995 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao 949

SUN JI 漢代無知文化資料圖說 308

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 27
  • ncc(post-V{NUM}.)+N : 3
  • vi : 1
  • n[post-V{NUM}].+Nm : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 春秋左傳 : 4
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 論語 : 2
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

卮 / 觶 / 治   zhī OC: tje MC: tɕiɛ zhī OC: tjal MC: tɕiɛ zhì OC: rlils MC: ɖi 10 Attributions

Zhī 治/觶/卮 refers to the round cylindrical wine cup made of wood, lacquare, bronze, silver, or pottery:  CHECK CHARACTERS!!! Zhī 治/觶/卮 refers to the round cylindrical wine cup made of wood, lacquare, bronze, silver, or pottery:  CHECK CHARACTERS!!! Zhī 治/觶/卮 refers to the round cylindrical wine cup made of wood, lacquare, bronze, silver, or pottery:  CHECK CHARACTERS!!!

  • nmagnificently decorated very large bronze or earthenware, sometimes even wooden wine beaker with round base (is illustrated CD 10.1385);
  • ncc(post-V{NUM}.)+Nclassifiera beaker of nm
   bēi OC: pɯɯ MC: puo̝i 5 Attributions

Bēi 杯 in Warring States and Han times referred to a shallow oval bowl with two ears used for wine, soup, broth, etc.; it was made of lacquered wood, bronze, earthenware, jade, silver, and even glass. After HUANG (1995: 951 - 952), the term was in that period also used for the deep beaker on a foot to drink wine from, which is known from archaeological finds; in textual evidence, there is no firm proof of it, but as regards the shape of the vessel which could only be used for drinking, it is highly probable.

  • n[post-V{NUM}].+Nmclassifier(one) cup of N (Note incidentally that the number one is lexically predictable, and not contextually determinate.)
  • nbeaker on a high foot; mostly: flat plain bowl with ears used for broth or for wine etc
   shāng OC: lʰaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 5 Attributions

Shāng 觴 is in late Warring States and Han times general term for a wine cup. It can often refer to bēi 杯.

  • nbeaker or bowl filled with wine: a beaker of any kind filled with wine
  • ncc(post-V{NUM}.)+Na beaker of, one beaker of
   zhuó OC: pljewɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐk 5 Attributions

Zhuó 酌 is a general term for a wine cup.

  • ngeneral derived meaning: wine cup or wine ladle
   jué OC: tsewɡ MC: tsi̯ɐk 4 Attributions

Jué 爵 is the term for Shang and Western Zhou bronze tripod with long spout to drink wine from, which was used on ceremonial occasions. Shape of the character read now as jué 爵in the oracle bone and bronze inscriptions obviously refers to this kind of cup. There are also pottery vessels of this shape known from the Shang period. In late Western Zhou times, this type of vessel came out of use. Jué 爵mentioned in the Eastern Zhou and Han texts can refer to each type of wine cup; according to Han sources jué 爵 should have room for one shēng 升 of wine. [??? it seems to me that jué 爵 in the Eastern Zhou sometimes refers to the certain amount of wine drunk at once rather than to the concrete wine vessel???.

  • nthree-footed bronze container with a broad long spout from which to drink wine on highly formal occasions, and the jué 爵 typically had room for one shēng 升 of wine; also used as a general word for a bronze wine cup of any kind
   gū OC: kʷaa MC: kuo̝ 2 Attributions

Gū 觚 in the Eastern Zhou and Han texts refers to some kind of vessel with edges. Its identification is uncertain. In archeology, the term is used for the trumpet-like bronze cup which is known from the Shang and Western Zhou periods. There are also lacquered and pottery vessels of this type.

  • nlarge high, sparsely decorated [trumpet-shaped] ceremonial bronze wine cup current from Shang [and early Zhou] times onwards which served to measure amounts of wine; had room for about 2 shēng 升.
  • vibe beakerly, be like a beaker, be as a beaker should be
   gōng OC: kʷraaŋ MC: kɣaŋ 1 Attribution

Gōng or guāng 觥 in SHIJING obviously refers to the drinking cup made of the rhinoceros horn or shaped like it. Later, it can be used for a large cup. In archaeology, the term traditionally refers to the large animal-like shaped bronze vessel known from the Shang and Western Zhou periods; but this attribution is probably mistaken.

  • nprofusely decorated ceremonial bronze wine cup in the form of a drinking horn with an elaborate lid; illustrated CD 10.1359
   jǐn OC: kɯnʔ MC: kɨn 0 Attributions
  • nnuptial wine cup (made of a gourd) [see HANYU DACIDIAN 1992: vol. 4, pp. 77 - 78]
   sǎn OC: sqaanʔ MC: sɑn 0 Attributions

Sǎn 散 refers to the same kind of vessel as jiǎ 斝.

  • nrefers to the same vessel as jiǎ 斝
   jiǎ OC: kraaʔ MC: kɣɛ 0 Attributions

Jiǎ 斝 is generally used as a term for a bronze vessel with three legs and round opening which was used to heat and serve wine. This type of vessel was common in the Shang and Western Zhou periods and came out of use in the late Western Zhou. Attribution of the name to this kind of vessel is not certain, but probable. In the Eastern Zhou and Han texts, jiǎ 斝 refers to the wine vessel, the content of which should be greater than in the case of jué 爵. [???The word seems to be rather rare in the Eastern Zhou and Han, and it occurs (except one mention in ZUO] in texts like YILI, SHUOWEN, as well as in commentaries; it cannot be thus excluded that its usage is some kind of archaization.

  • na wine cup in which the wine was heated before it was served in the same, with a round handle on the side
   kē OC: khaab MC: khɑp 0 Attributions

Kē 搕 is a kind of (probably ordinary) cup to drink from referred to in ZUO.

  • nZUO: wooden cup or earthenware cup (excavated specimens tend to be of the earthenware kind)
   zūn OC: tsuun MC: tsuo̝n 0 Attributions
  • ngoblet; wine-cup
   zhǎn OC: tsreenʔ MC: ʈʂɣɛn 0 Attributions
  • ncup made of jade, used in sacrificing [or decorated with jade??: see HANYU DACIDIAN 1992: vol. 4, pp. 592] [JM]
醆 / 盞   zhǎn OC: tsreenʔ MC: ʈʂɣɛn zhǎn OC: tsreenʔ MC: ʈʂɣɛn 0 Attributions

Zhǎn 醆/盞 is in Han times rare term for small bēi 杯 (mentioned in FANGYAN). Zhǎn 醆/盞 is in Han times rare term for small bēi 杯 (mentioned in FANGYAN).

  • nsmall plain flat bowl to drink wine from
   jiǎo OC: krooɡ MC: kɣɔk 0 Attributions

Jiǎo 角 occurs rarely in the Eastern Zhou and Han texts, and it should refer to some kind of cup made originally of an animal horn or resembling it in a shape. Identification of this vessel remains uncertain, although there are horn-like vessels known from the Shang down to the Han. In archaeology, jiǎo 角 is used for the bronze wine tripod similar in a shape to jué 爵 but with two identical spouts on the opposite sides of an opening; this vessel was in use from the Shang down to the Western Zhou period.

  • nwine cup with 200 cc content originally made of horn, and therefore in the shape of a horn, but later made of bronze. Archeological finds, naturally enough, are of bronze cups.
   zhì OC: tjals MC: tɕiɛ 0 Attributions
  • nwine flask taking three shēng 升
椑榼   pí kē OC: bee khaab MC: bei khɑp 0 Attributions
  • NPHN: flasks and simple wooden cups, sometime also made of earthenware [I have only found that it was a round kē 榼: see HANYU DACIDIAN 1992: vol. 4, pp. 1118] [JM]
羽觴   yǔ shāng OC: ɢʷaʔ lʰaŋ MC: ɦi̯o ɕi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

Yǔ shāng 羽 觴 (?? in HANYU DACIDIAN as hù shāng: see vol. 9, pp. 641) is mentioned as a wine cup in the texts of the late Warring States and Han periods; perhaps another term for bēi 杯 with two ears:

  • nCC: mostly bronze (but sometimes wooden) bowl to drink wine from

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: