Be ABLE to VOLUNTARILY:deliberately REACT to.
Old Chinese Criteria





1. The current general word for being aware of something or of being aware at all is zhī 知.


2. Jué 覺 is inchoative and refers to coming to the awareness of something or becoming aware of something.


3. Xiǎo 曉 is a rare dialect word for awareness.


Modern Chinese Criteria






first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis 18.11.2003. CH

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 126

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.174

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 1.888


UNGER 2000 Grundbegriffe der altchinesischen Philosophie 2


BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy


HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.


Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 40
  • nab : 18
  • vtoS : 11
  • vt(oN) : 8
  • VPt[oN] : 5
  • vtoNPab{S} : 4
  • vt+V[0] : 3
  • NPab : 3
  • vt V[0] : 2
  • vt[oN] : 2
  • vi : 2
  •{NUM} : 2
  • VPt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 12
  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 說苑 : 10
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 六祖壇經 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 論語 : 3
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 列子 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 管子 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1


   zhī OC: te MC: ʈiɛ 56 Attributions

The current general word for being or becoming aware of something or of being aware at all is zhī 知. [GENERAL]

  • vtoNPab{S}be aware that S
  • nabpsychawareness
  • vt[oN]be conscious and aware of things
  • vt+V[0]understand that one V-s; be aware that one V-s
  • vtoNinchoativebecome aware of; come to know of; come to feel
  • vtoNpsychbe aware of what is happening to (oneself) [SOME EXAMPLES HAVE TO BE MOVED HERE FROM "UNDERSTAND"]
  • vtoNsensationhave a sensation of, feel
  • vtoSbe aware that S
  • vtoSinchoativecome to be aware of
  • vtoNstativebe aware of
  • vt V[0]inchoativebecome aware that one is V-ing
  • vt(oN)be aware of the contextually determinate thing or situation
  • vt(oS)be aware of the contextually determinate fact of S
   shí OC: qhljɯɡ MC: ɕɨk 20 Attributions
  • nabpsychawareness
  • nabbuddhistBUDDH: consciousness, skr. vij%nāna
  • vadVendowed with awareness
  • vt(oN)recognise the identity of the contextually determinate person N
  • vtoNcontinuousshow some awareness of; recognise the identity of; show any awareness of; have some idea concerning, have any idea of
  • vtoNimperativekeep in mind!
  • vtoNinchoativecome to be familiar/aquainted with
  • vtoNPab{S}inchoativeto come to see or perceive intellectually that; to recognize, if
  • vtoSbecome aware of the fact that S
   jué OC: kruuɡ MC: kɣɔk 8 Attributions

Jué 覺 is inchoative and refers to coming to the awareness of something or becoming aware of something. [INCHOATIVE]

  • nabsubject=actionwhat is aware > consciousness DELETE
  • vt(oN)become aware of a contextually determinate matter
  • vt[oN]changebecome conscious of things
  • vtoNcontinuousbe conscious of it
  • vtoNinchoativebecome aware of
  • vtoNpassivebe found out, be discovered
自知   zì zhī OC: sblids te MC: dzi ʈiɛ 5 Attributions
  • VPt[oN]be aware of what is happening to oneself; be aware what is going on
   jiàn OC: keens MC: ken 4 Attributions
  • vtoNbe exposed to; become aware of, notice; be aware of; perceive; have noticed HANSHU: 凡人之智能見已然不能見將然
   xiǎo OC: qheewʔ MC: heu 2 Attributions

Xiǎo 曉 is a rare dialect word for awareness. [[DIALECT], [[RARE]]

  • vt(oN)be aware of, know of a contextually determinate N
  • vtoNbe aware of; be able to recognise
   sū OC: sɡlaa MC: suo̝ 2 Attributions
  • vichangeregain consciousness, come to
覺知   jué zhī OC: kruuɡ te MC: kɣɔk ʈiɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychenlightened awareness
  • VPt(oN)changebecome aware of, notice
神識   shén shí OC: ɢljin qhljɯɡ MC: ʑin ɕɨk 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychconsciousness
識主   shí zhǔ OC: qhljɯɡ tjoʔ MC: ɕɨk tɕi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: master of the consciousness > usually referring to the eighth consciouness, the ālàiyéshí 阿賴耶識 or storehouse consciousness; SANSKRIT ālayavijñāna
   liǎo OC: reewʔ MC: leu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNinchoativepost-Han
四空   sì kōng OC: plids khooŋ MC: si khuŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabthe four states of the formless realm
意地   yì dì OC: qɯɡs lils MC: ʔɨ di 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: mind-consciousness, the sixth consciousness (see refers to the Sixth Consciousness (yìshí 意識), which organizes the sense impressions obtained by the other five consciousnesses, and structures them in categories, makes concepts, etc.; it is the basis 地 of mental functions; according to the QIXINLUN it is the consciousness which is attached to existence, similar to the 'continuity-conciousness' 相續識, skr. santati); skr. mano-vijñāna-bhūmika
意根   yì gēn OC: qɯɡs kɯɯn MC: ʔɨ kən 0 Attributions
  • NPabpsychabstract intellectual consciousness (sometimes generally: designs)
意識   yì shí OC: qɯɡs qhljɯɡ MC: ʔɨ ɕɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: mind-conscoiusness; the sixth consciousness (see also yìdì 意地; the consciousness which organizes the information which is received by the sense-organs, structuring them in the mind (making concepts, distinctions, evaluations, categories, etc.); it is sometimes also described as the fasculty which creates the illusion of a self; frequently used in the LANKA); SANSKRIT mano-vijñāna
有知   yǒu zhī OC: ɢʷɯʔ te MC: ɦɨu ʈiɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPihave conscience; be aware of things
眼識   yǎn shí OC: ŋɡrɯɯnʔ qhljɯɡ MC: ŋɣɛn ɕɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: eye-consciousness (the 1st conscousness); SANSKRIT cakṣur-vijñāna
耳識   ěr shí OC: mljɯʔ qhljɯɡ MC: ȵɨ ɕɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: ear-consciousness (the second consciouness); SANSKRIT śrota-vijñāna
藏識   cáng shí OC: sɡaaŋ qhljɯɡ MC: dzɑŋ ɕɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the eighth consciousness or 'store(house)-consciousness; SANSKRIT ālayavijñāna (see 阿賴耶識)
見覺   jiàn jué OC: keens kruuɡ MC: ken kɣɔk 0 Attributions
  • VPiinchoativeBUDDH: see and experience > to perceive (as the sense organs their respective sense objects)
身識   shēn shí OC: qhjin qhljɯɡ MC: ɕin ɕɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: body (touch) consciousness (the fifth consciousness); SANSKRIT kāya-vijñāna
鼻識   bí shí OC: bids qhljɯɡ MC: bi ɕɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: nose-consciousness (the fourth consciousness); SANSKRIT ghrāṇa-vijñāna
相續識   xiàng xù shí OC: sqaŋs sɢloɡ qhljɯɡ MC: si̯ɐŋ zi̯ok ɕɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: continuity-consciouness; SANSKRIT santati (consciouness which clings to exstence)
能覺悟   néng jué wù OC: nɯɯŋ kruuɡ ŋaas MC: nəŋ kɣɔk ŋuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNbe able to understand> be fully aware of
阿賴邪識   ā lài yé shí OC: qlaal b-raads la qhljɯɡ MC: ʔɑ lɑi jɣɛ ɕɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the eighth consciousness or 'storehouse' consciousness, skr. ālayavij%nāna
阿黎邪識   ā lí yé shí OC: qlaal riil la qhljɯɡ MC: ʔɑ lei jɣɛ ɕɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the eighth consciousness or 'store(house)-consciousness; SANSKRIT ālayavijñāna (see 阿賴耶識)

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: