BARREN  慌蕪

LACKING GROWTH of LIVING PLANTS.
UNPRODUCTIVEINFERTILEUNFRUITFULSTERILEARIDDESERT
Antonymy

FERTILE

Kind Of

LACK

Old Chinese Criteria

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

1. The standard word is huāng 荒 (ant. féi 肥 "rich, fertile" and wò 沃 "fertile") which refers to any barren or uncultivated piece of land.

[GENERAL], [GENERAL-USE]; [[COMMON]]

2. Wú 蕪 (ant. fān 蕃 "rich in agricultural vegetation") refers specifically to land overgrown with weads and thus unable to yield agricultural produce.

[GENERAL-USE]; [[RARE]]

3. Què 埆 refers to barren soil basically unsuitable for cultivation.

[TECHNICAL-TERM]; [[RARE]]

4. Qiāo 墝 refers to stony barren territory unsuitable for cultivation.

[TECHNICAL-TERM]; [[RARE]]

5. Cǎo lái 草萊 refers to barren grasslands unsuitable for cultivation.

[POETIC]; [[RARE]]

6. Bù máo 不毛 refers simply to the striking absence of all vegetation.

[ELEVATED], [POETIC]

Modern Chinese Criteria

荒蕪

荒廢

蕪穢

莽原

莽蒼

平蕪

大荒

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. Some words refer specifically to non-productivity of land (què 埆, qiāo 墝 ), some to the fact that (potentially productive) land is not cultivated and deserted (huāng 荒, wú 蕪 ).

2. Some words refer to spesific kinds of being barren (qiāo 墝 stony barren earth, cǎo lái 草萊 grasslands)

3. Some expressions are metaphorical ( 不毛之地 )

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 64/525/90

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 8
  • n : 2
  • nab : 2
  • VPadN : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • vtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 6
  • 管子 : 4
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 老子 : 1
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   huāng OC: hmaaŋ MC: hɑŋ 6 Attributions

The standard word is huāng 荒 (ant. féi 肥 "rich, fertile" and wò 沃"fertile") which refers to any barren or uncultivated piece of land. [GENERAL], [GENERAL-USE]; [[COMMON]]

  • vadNbarren; depopulated and uncultivated 荒原
  • vi(of a year) have low yields, bear little fruit; be barren; lie fallow, uncultivated (of fields)
  • vtoNcausativecause to be barren, leave barren
墝 / 磽   qiāo OC: khreew MC: khɣɛu qiāo OC: khreew MC: khɣɛu 4 Attributions

Qiāo 墝/磽 refers to stony barren territory unsuitable for cultivation. [TECHNICAL-TERM]; [[RARE]] Qiāo 墝/磽 refers to stony barren territory unsuitable for cultivation. [TECHNICAL-TERM]; [[RARE]]

  • nGUAN, XUN, LS stony barren earth
  • vibe barren
  • nabfeaturebarrenness
   wú OC: ma MC: mi̯o 2 Attributions

Wú 蕪 (ant. fān 蕃 "rich in agricultural vegetation") refers specifically to land overgrown with weads and thus unable to yield agricultural produce. [GENERAL-USE]; [[RARE]]

  • vinot bear fruit, be overgrown only with weeds MENG 荒蕪
不毛   bù máo OC: pɯʔ moow MC: pi̯ut mɑu 2 Attributions

Bù máo 不毛 refers simply to the striking absence of all vegetation. [ELEVATED], [POETIC]

  • VPadNwithout vegetation; without agriculturally cultivated plants
  • VPibe barren; be non-productive
   què OC: khrooɡ MC: khɣɔk 1 Attribution

Què 埆 refers to barren soil basically unsuitable for cultivation. [TECHNICAL-TERM]; [[RARE]]

  • nbarren land MO 墝埆者其地不育
   yǒng OC: k-loŋʔ MC: ji̯oŋ 0 Attributions
    草萊 / 草萊   cǎo lài OC: tshuuʔ rɯɯs MC: tshɑu ləi cǎo lái OC: tshuuʔ rɯɯ MC: tshɑu ləi 0 Attributions

    Cǎo lái 草萊refers to barren grasslands unsuitable for cultivation. [POETIC]; [[RARE]] Cǎo lái 草萊refers to barren grasslands unsuitable for cultivation. [POETIC]; [[RARE]]

    • NPbarren area not used for agriculture; savannah, grasslands where only weeds grow

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: