BLIND  失明

LACK the ABILITY to SEE.
SIGHTLESSUNSIGHTEDVISUALLY IMPAIREDVISIONLESSUNSEEINGPARTIALLY SIGHTEDPURBLIND
Antonymy

SEE

See also

DEAFDEAF

Kind Of

LACK

Old Chinese Criteria

[[CONGERIES]]

1. Gǔ 瞽 is the standard word for blindness (not necessarily congenital) where a person has eyeballs, but where the eyesight is impaired, some say typically by the eye-lids leaving only a small opening. The word also has figurative meanings.

2. Máng 盲 (ant. míng 明 "endowed with clear sight") became the standard word for blindness, but the word can apparently also refer specifically to colour-blindness in pre-Han times.

3. Méng 矇 / 蒙 refers specifically to blindness as a result of glaucoma, but is also current in generalised meanings referring to reduced vision.

4. Sǒu 瞍 refers ocasionally to blindness which is the result of atrophy or lack of eyeballs (as prototypically in the case of Music Master Kuàng 師曠 ), and this is an ancient elevated word to use.

5. Miǎo 眇 refers to blindness on one eye because of near-sightnedness or strabismus; and in post-Han times the word came to refer to blindness in both eyes.

6. Xuàn 眩 refers to non-congenital blindness, but the word is very often used metaphorically in the sense of "blinded, dazzled".

NB: Xiá 瞎 is post-Buddhist, SANGUO.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

BODY 23.

盲,通名,凡目無所見都是盲,引申為雙目失明的總稱。

瞽,失去眼球或眼球下陷後眼球和臉粘合的失明;泛指所有的失明。

蒙,有眸子而無所見。

瞍,無眸子的失明。

眇,本指由於疾病引起一目變小的小目,又隨著病情發展而指半盲、一目盲。

瞎,無眸子失明,口語詞。

Modern Chinese Criteria

瞎眼

失明

喪明

盲目

盲眼

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 4.97

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

CAECITAS

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.687

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 794

瞍,矇,瞽

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

caecus 'blind, dark, invisible' [adj. o/a] (P1.+)

Derivatives: caecare 'to make blind' (Lucr.+), caecilia 'the blind-worm' (Col.),

caecitas 'blindness' (Cic.+), caeculus 'small (and) blind' (Lab.+), caecutire 'to be

blind, see badly' (Varro+), caecultare 'to be purblind, see badly' (PI., Paul, ex F.).

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 236

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 20
  • v[adN] : 17
  • vtoN : 5
  • vadN : 5
  • n : 4
  • nab : 3
  • NP : 2
  • NPadN : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 10
  • 韓詩外傳 : 7
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 淮南子 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 論語 : 3
  • 春秋左傳 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1

Words

   gǔ OC: kaaʔ MC: kuo̝ 21 Attributions

Gǔ 瞽 is the standard word for blindness (not necessarily congenital) where a person has eyeballs, but where the eyesight is impaired, some say typically by the eye-lids leaving only a small opening. The word also has figurative meanings.

  • nabdispositionblindness of both eyes, with eyelids almost closed, leaving only a crevice, as the result of trachoma or conjunctivitis
  • nabdispositionpsychological blindness, failure to notice what one should notice
  • v[adN]the blind (often regarded as distinguished for their ability as musicians)
  • vadNblind
  • vibe blind
  • vifigurativeblind > ignorant, ill-informed
   máng OC: mraaŋ MC: mɣaŋ 17 Attributions

The standard word referring to blindness came to be máng 盲 (ant. míng 明 "endowed with clear sight"), but the word can also refer specifically to colour-blindness in pre-Han times.

  • nblindness
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthe blind; those who are blind
  • vadNblind
  • vioriginally to be colourblind; after Qin the general term for both eyes being blind
  • vichangeturn blind
  • vtoNcausativecause to be blind > to blind (the eyes)
   xuàn OC: ɡʷeens MC: ɦen 5 Attributions

Xuàn 眩 refers to non-congenital blindness, but the word is very often used metaphorically in the sense of "dazzled".

  • nabfeaturebad eyesight
  • vibe blinded and insensitive (is really the same as vt-pass)
  • vtoNcausativeto blind, to block the vision of someone
  • vtoNpassivebe blinded (and deceived) by
  • vtoNstativebe blind to
矇 / 蒙   méng OC: mooŋ MC: muŋ méng OC: mooŋ MC: muŋ 3 Attributions

Méng 矇 refers specifically to blindness as a result of glaucoma, but is also current in generalised meanings referring to reduced vision. Méng 矇 refers specifically to blindness as a result of glaucoma, but is also current in generalised meanings referring to reduced vision.

  • viblindness (or loss of sight) as the result of a cataract or glaucoma
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthe blind
  • nblindness
   mèi OC: mɯɯds MC: muo̝i 2 Attributions
  • viblind
  • v[adN]N=humblind person
  • nabfeatureblindness
   miǎo OC: mewʔ MC: miɛu 2 Attributions

Miǎo 眇 refers to blindness on one eye because of near-sightnedness or strabismus; NB that in post-Han times the word came to refer to blindness on both eyes.

  • v[adN]nonreferentialthe blind; those who are blind
  • viblind on one eye because of strabismus or near-sightedness; post-Han: blind on both eyes
  • vtoNcausativecause to be blind; to blind
   sǒu OC: sooʔ MC: su 2 Attributions

Sǒu 瞍 refers ocasionally to blindness which is the result of atrophy or lack of eyeballs (as prototypically in the case of Music Master Kuàng 師曠), and this is an ancient elevated word to use.

  • v[adN]the blind; the dim-eyed
  • viblindness as the result of atrophy of the eyeball, especially due to softening of the cornea during childhood due to vitamin deficiency
   xiā OC: qhraad MC: hɣat 2 Attributions

Xiá 瞎 "blind" is post-Han colloquial, SANGUO.

  • vadNblind
  • vadNfigurativeblind > ignorant, dumb
  • vipost-Han, Six Dynasties, colloquial: blindness, mostly of one eye, as the result of a wound on the cornea; after Jin: blind on both eyes
  • vtoNcausativecause to be blind > cheat
瞽師   gǔ shī OC: kaaʔ sril MC: kuo̝ ʂi 2 Attributions
  • NPblind person
盲眼   máng yǎn OC: mraaŋ ŋɡrɯɯnʔ MC: mɣaŋ ŋɣɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPadNblind
矇瞍   méng sǒu OC: mooŋ sooʔ MC: muŋ su 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]nonreferentialthose who have bad eyesight, the blind
   mào OC: muuɡs MC: mɑu 0 Attributions
  • vadV(with covered eyes:) blindly
   miǎn OC: mbiinʔ MC: men 0 Attributions
  • nabstativeblindness of one eye as the cause of trachoma
   mào OC: moows MC: mɑu 0 Attributions
  • vidim-sighted
   mán OC: mboon MC: mʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • vilose of sight as the result of conjunctivitis in which eye ball and eye lid have grown together leading to an inability to move the eye
  • vtoNcausativecause to be blind cause to become blind 爾時嫉妒夫人瞞他目者 (T.4/203: 453á8)
清盲   qīng máng OC: tsheŋ mraaŋ MC: tshiɛŋ mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NP???
瞽者   gǔ zhě OC: kaaʔ kljaʔ MC: kuo̝ tɕɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPa blind person

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: