LACKING REFER-TO:reference to CONCRETE THINGS.
Old Chinese Criteria
1. Xū 虛 derives its sense from the meaning "physically insubstantial" and refers negatively to something having only tenuous links with concrete things.
2. Wēi 微 derives its sense from the meaning "slight; tenuous" refers to something being so subtle and only indirectly suggestive as to have no direct manifest reference to any concrete reality or meaning.
3. Kōng 空 derives from the meaning "physically empty (space)" and refers to something being empty in a transferred sense so as to have no manifest reference to concrete reality.
Modern Chinese Criteria
rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH ／
Old Chinese Contrasts
LEIBNIZ 6.4 P. 54: A b s t r a h e r e philosophis, quod est cum aliis separatim considerare.
A b s t r a c t u m constitutivum praedicationis.
Strong on ancient and medieval detail.
Generally not helpful.
aliquid ab aliquo vi sejungere. Apud Logicos tribuitur operationi Mentis, qua formam sine respectu Subjecti considerant: ut quantitatem sine quanto, albedinem, altitudinem, eruditionem ---
Logici vocant formam per se consideratam sine Subjecto.
Interesting longish discussion.
Only periphrastic phrases are available:
1. sevocatus a sensibus
2. neque visu neque tactu manifestus
3. a corporibus seductus
4. subtiliter can come to mean "in an abstract manner".
ABSTRACTA sunt Entia, quae discriminant diversa praedicata ejusdem Entis.
Attributions by syntactic funtion
Attributions by text
- 韓非子 : 6
- 史記 : 5
- 呂氏春秋 : 2
- 鹽鐵論 : 1
- 管子 : 1
- 百喻經 : 1
- 韓詩外傳 : 1
虛言 xū yán OC: qhla ŋan MC: hi̯ɤ ŋi̯ɐn 6 Attributions
- NPabtextabstract speeches; irrelevant talk
虛 xū OC: qhla MC: hi̯ɤ 4 Attributions
Xū 虛 derives its sense from the meaning "physically tenuous" and refers to something being tenuous in substance or having only tenuous links with concrete realities. [EXPLICIT]
- vadNfigurativeabstract and without concrete reference
虛辭 xū cí OC: qhla zɯ MC: hi̯ɤ zɨ 3 Attributions
- NPabactabstract discourse; abstract moralisations; abstract rhetoric
空 kōng OC: khooŋ MC: khuŋ 2 Attributions
- vadNfigurativeinsubstantial, abstract, empty
- vadNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: devoid of concrete reference to specific cases.JZ 8.1, Liu Hui's comm (possibly even Li Chunfeng) 此都術也。以空言難曉。 "This is a universal/general procedure, and it is hard to understand on the basis of general discourse (without a concrete paradigm)." 故特繫之禾以決之。 "Therefore it makes a point of linking the procedure concretely to millet in order to sort out things."JZ 8.18, Liu Hui's comm: 綱羅、道精，豈傳之空言 "As for the main strands in this, and the subtleties of the method, how could this be transmitted through abstract/non-exemplifying discourse?" 記其施用之例，著策之數，每舉一隅焉。 "By recording an example of its use in practice, by noting down the numbers in counting rods (cè) (in each position on the calculating surface), in each case we bring up one corner of matters (and leave the remaining three implicit, to be understood by the reader)."
統 tǒng OC: thuuŋs MC: thuo̝ŋ 1 Attribution
- nabmetaphysicalgenus (versus 類 "species")
無著 wú zhuó OC: ma k-laɡ MC: mi̯o ʈi̯ɐk 1 Attribution
- VPadNwithout link to the physical world
微 wēi OC: mɯl MC: mɨi 0 Attributions
Wēi 微 refers to something being so subtle and only indirectly suggestive as to have no direct manifest reference to any concrete reality or meaning. [IMPLICIT]
- vadNbe subtle to the point where the concrete reference to reality or to one's meaning is absent
總 zǒng OC: skooŋʔ MC: tsuŋ 0 Attributions
- vadNsummarizing> general, all-encompassing; abstract 總名
都 dū OC: k-laa MC: tuo̝ 0 Attributions
- vadNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: superordinate general, abstract (as in 都術 "dominant, i.e. general procedure (not limited to specific kind of mathematical case)"JZ 8.1, Liu Hui's comm. (possibly even Li Chunfeng) 此都術也。以空言難曉。 "This is a universal/general procedure, and it is hard to understand on the basis of general discourse (without a concrete paradigm)."In JZ 2.0 the main text begins 今有, and the commentary explains 此都術也。 "This is a main procedure (in the art of calculation)."
空言 kōng yán OC: khooŋ ŋan MC: khuŋ ŋi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
- NPababstract discourse HANSHU: 空言謂褒貶是非也。
Existing SW for
Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: