CHEW  

BITE so as to CAUSE TO BECOME TENUOUS, OFTEN:typically IN ORDER TO EAT.
MUNCHCHOMPCHAMPCRUNCHNIBBLEGNAWEATCONSUMEFORMAL MASTICATEMANDUCATE
Kind Of

BITE

Old Chinese Criteria

It is interesting to note that all the words below are only rarely used to mean "chew" in ancient Chinese texts. And most words seem to belong more naturally into the group BITE.

1. Jué 嚼 and jǔ 咀 are rare and late words for "to chew", but jǔ 咀 also has a more general meaning "to eat".

2. Shì 噬 focusses on intense mastication and biting into food, and the word often includes the meaning of swallowing what one has chewed intensely.

3. Yǎo 咬 merely refers to the biting into something, and secondarily the chewing over of it, but the word never refers to swallowing.

4. Bǔ 哺 is first attested in TANG and involves a very mild degree of mastication or chewing, and often includes semantically the subsequent swallowing of food.

Modern Chinese Criteria

嚼 is the current modern word for to chew.

咀嚼 jǔjué is a more literary word which has many figurative meanings.

反芻 refers to regurgitation.

倒嚼 is a more colourless term for regurgitation.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 2
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • vi.red:adV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 荀子 : 2
  • 春秋左傳 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1

Words

   yǎo OC: ŋɡreewʔ MC: ŋɣɛu 1 Attribution

Yǎo 咬 merely refers to the biting into something, and secondarily the chewing over of it, but the word never refers to swallowing.

  • vtoNchew over, chew on undecorously; rare: HANSHU: shihuozhi, shang 易子而咬其骨 gnaw (as bones of each other's children)
   shì OC: djads MC: dʑiɛi 1 Attribution

Shì 噬 focusses on intense mastication and biting into food, and the word often includes the meaning of swallowing what one has chewed intensely.

  • vtoNgnaw, chew (and swallow)
   jiào MC: dzjewH OC: dzews 1 Attribution
  • vt[oN]to chew things
��   rán MC: -- OC: -- 1 Attribution
  • vi.red:adVdescriptive of gluttonous chewing: self-indulgently
   jǔ OC: sɡaʔ MC: dzi̯ɤ 0 Attributions

Jué 嚼 and jǔ 咀are rare and late words for "to chew", but jǔ 咀 also has a more general meaning "to eat".

  • vtoNpost-Han: chew
   rán OC: njam MC: ȵiɛm 0 Attributions
  • viactchew
   bǔ OC: baas MC: buo̝ 0 Attributions

Bǔ 哺 is first attested in TANG and involves a very mild degree of mastication or chewing, and often includes semantically the subsequent swallowing of food.

  • viacthave food in the mouth, chew
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNchew
   jiáo OC: dzewɡ MC: dzi̯ɐk 0 Attributions

Jué 嚼 and jǔ 咀are rare and late words for "to chew", but jǔ 咀 also has a more general meaning "to eat".

  • vt(oN)chew the contextually determinate object N
  • vtoNchew

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: