ADMIT that one has in the PAST been GUILTY AND DECLARE that one REGRETS this.
Old Chinese Criteria
NB: There is, so far, no sufficient basis to distinguish between the meanings of these words, which are rare in this meaning.
1. Xiè 謝 is the standard word to use, but, surprisingly, the word is quite rare.
2. Cí 辭 can perhaps be taken to emphasise the explanations made on the occasion of apologising, but examples are too few to be sure.
3. Qǐng 請 emphasises, perhaps, the implicit request for the apology to be accepted, but examples are too few to be sure.
Modern Chinese Criteria
道歉 is the standard word referring to an apology.
致歉 refers in a formal way to the offer of an apology.
賠罪 refers in a formal way to an apology for a serious transgression involving guilt.
賠禮 refers in a formal way to an apology for a transgression involving impropriety.
賠話 focusses on the linguistic form of an apology.
賠不是 focusses on the action of asking forgiveness for a wrong-doing.
賠小心 focusses on the action of asking forgiveness, typically for an error of reprehensible thoughtlessness.
first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis 18.11.2003. CH/
Old Chinese Contrasts
Surprisingly, all the usages are not very common and therefore it is hard to be sure of the nuances expressed.
purgatio consists, like justification, in clearing oneself of a suspicion or accusation by proving it to be groundless.
exusatio "excuse", refes to acknowledging that one has done somethng wrong, but asserting subjective innocence, i.e. claiming that the wrong was committed by mistake.
satisfactio "attonement" is the satisfaction made to the suffering party of some wrong, or the injured party, in case of innocence.
Attributions by syntactic funtion
vt prep S: 1
VPt( prep N): 1
Attributions by text
- 史記 : 12
- 春秋左傳 : 8
- 戰國策 : 7
- 韓非子 : 6
- 呂氏春秋 : 4
- 說苑 : 2
- 莊子 : 2
- 賢愚經 : 2
- 論語 : 1
- 禮記 : 1
- 臨濟錄 : 1
- 孟子 : 1
- 韓詩外傳 : 1
- 尚書 : 1
謝 xiè OC: MC: zɣɛ 23 Attributions
Xiè 謝 is the standard word to use for an apology, although even this word is not too common.
- viactbeg pardon; offer one's apologies, apologise; apologise for one's misdeeds
- vt(oN.)+Vapologise to a contextually determinate person 謝曰：。。。
- vt(oN)apologise (for something contextually determinate)
- vt+prep+Napologise (to someone) on someone else's behalf 往謝焉
- vt+Vapologise for V-ing
- vtoN.+Vapologise to N and say 謝之曰
- vtoNHF 2.7.29: apologise to; make apologies for a misdeed (on behalf of someone)
- vtoNobject=causebeg to be excused because of 謝病
- vtoNN=offenceapologise for the offence N
- vtt(oN1.)+N2apologise to the contextually determinate N1 for N2
辭 cí OC: zɯ MC: zɨ 12 Attributions
Cí 辭 can perhaps be taken to emphasise the explanations made on the occasion of apologising.
- viactexplain oneself and apologise; make self-effacing speeches; plead
- vt+prep+Nto apologise (for something)
- vt+Vapologise for Ving.
- vtoNgive an apologetic explanation for
- nabsocialexcuse 無辭 "have no excuse"
- vt prep Sapologise on the basis of S
請 qǐng OC: tsheŋʔ MC: tshiɛŋ 6 Attributions
Qǐng 請 emphasises, perhaps, the implicit request for the apology to be accepted.
- viactapologise; ask for forgiveness, beg for pardon
- vtoNask forgiveness for 請x之罪
請罪 qǐng zuì OC: tsheŋʔ sbuulʔ MC: tshiɛŋ dzuo̝i 6 Attributions
- VPiapologise, ask for forgiveness
- VPtoNapologise for
- VPt( prep N)apologise to the contextually determinate N
報謝 bào xiè OC: puuɡs MC: pɑu zɣɛ 1 Attribution
- VPtoNapologise to
謝罪 xiè zuì OC: sbuulʔ MC: zɣɛ dzuo̝i 1 Attribution
- VPiactbeg forgiveness for one's crimes
乞命 qǐ mìng OC: khɯd mɢreŋs MC: khɨt mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
- VPiactbeg to have one's life spared; apologise abjectly for a very serious crime
辭謝 cí xiè OC: zɯ MC: zɨ zɣɛ 0 Attributions
- VPtoNapologise to N
降服 jiàng fú OC: kruums bɯɡ MC: kɣɔŋ buk 0 Attributions
- VPiacttake off one's upper garments to acknowledge one's guilt
Existing SW for
Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: