ENVY  羨慕

SOCIAL EMOTION: HATE someone BECAUSE one LACKS something GOOD which that OTHER PERSON HAS.
BE ENVIOUS OFBE JEALOUS OFBEGRUDGEBE RESENTFUL OF
Taxonoymy

JEALOUS

Antonymy

ADMIRE

See also

HATE

Kind Of

SOCIAL EMOTION

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most current general word for the positive aspects envy is probably xiàn 羨 (ant. dù 妒 "resentful envy"), but this word rarely has negative overtones of dissatisfaction and is often close in meaning to "admiration". See ADMIRE.

2. The rare usage of the word lián 憐 which normally means "to pity", to mean "envy" has no strong overtones of objective admiration.

NB: for dù 妒 etc. see HATE and JEALOUS. It is difficult to find a general word for envy as a negative attitude without that element of hatred and resentment in pre-Buddhist China.

Modern Chinese Criteria

羨慕

愛慕

欣羨

歆羨

艷羨

稱羨

嘆羨

眼饞

眼熱

眼紅

紅眼

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.44

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 91

ZELUS, INVIDIA

610. Cujus auctoris sit versus Graecus incertum.

-- Invidiae autem. Cic., Tusc. III.

-- Illud. Actii ex Menalippo, sed detruncatus versus, qui apud Ciceronem ita legitur: Florem quisnam liberum invidit meum?

[col. 70C] Apud Non., dict. Invidiae: Unde aut quis mortalis florem liberum invidit meum?

Trochaicis numeris.

]

610. Inter Zelum et invidiam. Zelus interdum et in bonam partem accipi potest, cum quis nititur ea quae [col. 70B] meliora sunt aemulari; invidia vero, ut dictum est, aliena felicitate torquetur, et in duplicem scinditur passionem, cum aut quod ipse est aliud esse 76 non vult, aut alium videns esse meliorem, dolet se non esse consimilem. Pulchre autem quidam Graecum versum transferens elegiaco metro, de Invidia lusit dicens: Justius invidia nihil est, quae protinus ipsum

Auctorem rodit, excruciatque animum.

Invidiae autem nomen dictum est a nimis intuendo felicitatem [ Cicer. fortunam] alterius, ut est illud: Quisnam florem invidit meum?

300. Etymolog. lib. X, littera I.

Ibid. In Ms. Barthii: Feliciori invidet, et sibi nocet. Invidiosus, qui ab aliquo patitur malum. Legit Barthius: qui ab aliquo petitur malo. Mox, ibid., bonis pro bonus, et Barthius interpretatur, bonis abundans, locuples. [AREV.]

]

300. Inter Invidum et invidiosum, quod invidus feliciori invidet, invidiosus autem is est [ Al. idem est] qui ab alio patitur invidiam [ Al. malum]. Nihil autem honestum, quod non invidiosum. Nemo quippe invidet misero; quis autem bonus et non invidiosus?

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ENVY

invidia refers to a temporary state of envy, whether active, as that which a man harbours, or passive, as a state in which a man stands.

invidentia is Cicero's term for the kind of envy which a man harbours.

malignitas is a permanent inclination towards envy of others.

obtrectatio refers to a course of action motivated by envy, or a manner of action motivated by envy directed towards a rival.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 78

HERNANDEZ 2000 Semantica del Griego Antiguo 71n19

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

ENVY

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 99

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 6.695

NEID

WEBER 1857 Democritus Ridens 5.182

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.73:50

ENVIER.PORTER ENVIE

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.227

ROBERTS 1998 Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography 281

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 50A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NPab : 6
  • vtoN : 5
  • vt[oN] : 4
  • VPadN : 3
  • VPtoN : 1
  • vtoNab{S} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 楚辭 : 6
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

嫉妒   jí dù OC: dzid k-laas MC: dzit tuo̝ 13 Attributions
  • NPabpsychenvy; jealousy
  • VPadNenvious; characterised by envy
  • VPtoNenvy
  • vt[oN]be full of envy
   lián OC: riin MC: len 5 Attributions

The rare usage of the word lián 憐 which normally means "to pity", to mean "envy" has no strong overtones of objective admiration.

  • vtoNenvy
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution

The most current general word for the positive aspects envy is probably xiàn 羨 (ant. dù 妒 "resentful envy"), but this word rarely has negative overtones of dissatisfaction and is often close in meaning to "admiration". See ADMIRE.

  • vtoNadmire and envy (without negative overtones)
  • vtoNab{S}envy and admire the SUBJECT'S PREDICATING
妒嫉   dù jí OC: dzid MC: tuo̝ dzit 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychenvy; jealousy
嫉 / 嫉   zì OC: dzids MC: dzi jí OC: dzid MC: dzit 0 Attributions
  • vtoNN=nonhube envious of (something someone else has)
  • vtoNN=humbe envious of (and resent)
   mù OC: maaɡs MC: muo̝ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNenvy

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: