BUDDHIST GARMENT  

Kind Of

GARMENT

FAURE 1995 Quand l'habit fait le moine Cahiers d'extrěme-Asie

KIESCHNICK 2003 The Impact of Buddhim on Chinese Material Culture 86-107

CONCISE SUMMARY:

the three monks' robes: already in Indian Buddhist texts the typical garment for monks was described of consisting of three items: a rectangular piece of cloth which was wrapped around the waist, covering the lower part of the body (this inner robe, skr. antarv$asa) was always worn, also during periods of work; another piece of cloth was draped over the left shoulder (upper garment, skr. uttar$asa$nga), covering the upper part of the body; third robe, the upper garment (skr. sa$mg$a$ti) was usually worn when the monk was in the public, for examples on begging tours; although the basic design of this outfit is quite simple, there were many complex variations concerning these robes and the outer robe could be made several strips (tia2o 條) of cloth (usually 5, 7, 9, 13, 15, or even more; each stip consists of several patches, ge2 隔); there were also careful descriptions how to sew a robe, using different kinds of stiching technics; in China there were many controversies concerning the proper style of monks' robes; in the course of time the robe was highly charged with symbolism the the three robes sometimes represented different sets of Buddhist terms (e.g. the three poisons greed, anger, and ignorance and their respective elimination; another symbolic connection were the three realms 三界 or the three assemblis 三會). There is evidence that the original Indian style of robe was brought to China, but underwent changes in the course of time, and there was an adaption to Chinese customs, climate, etc. Gradually, there deveoped the sleeved robe, typical of East-Asian Buddhism, usually combined with trousers; at the end of the Tang - after having been criticised for long periods of time - this style of robe seems to have been firmly established; the outer robe - originally also a rectangular piece of cloth - became heavily charged with symbolism and were still made of a number a patches; however, although originally symbolizing the poverty of a monk, often the outer robe is China (and later Japan) was eventually made of especially fine and colorful materials, becoming a status symbol for high-ranking priests. In order to hold the robe in place, eventually a ring and ribbon (gouniu 鉤紐) was attached to it. In medieval China there was also an extended discussion about the use of silk for monks' robes since the production of silk involved the taking of life; however, eventually the use of silk was firmly established since it also was the easiest obtainable material.

POIRIER 1991 Histoire des moeurs 1.961

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

CLOTHING

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.399.360

VETREMENT.HABILLEMENT.HABIT

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP : 16
  • n : 1

Attributions by text

  • 祖堂集 : 15
  • 賢愚經 : 2

Words

袈裟   jiā shā OC: kraal sraal MC: kɣɛ ʂɣɛ 5 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: monks' robe; skr. kaṣāya (Chinese monks used to use monks' robes of different colors (often indicating different schools), ranging grey, brown, to black until ca. the tenth cent.; afterwards the color of the robes got gradually standardized; the monks' robe was a powerful symbol for the Buddhist clergy and becoming a monk was often described in terms of changing garment; there is an abundancy of writings concerning the outfit for monks throughout Buddhist history in China)
僧伽梨衣   sēng qié lí yī OC: sɯɯŋ ɡal ril qɯl MC: səŋ gʷɑ li ʔɨi 4 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: outer monks' robe (see 三衣) skr. saṃghati
三衣   sān yī OC: saam qɯl MC: sɑm ʔɨi 3 Attributions
  • NPBUDDH: the three monks' robes (typical for an Indian monk); skr. trīni cīvarāṇi; pali tīni cīvarāṇi (already in Indian Buddhist texts the typical garment for monks was described of consisting of three items: a rectangular piece of cloth which was wrapped around the waist, covering the lower part of the body (this inner robe, skr. antarvāsa, āntuóhuì 安陀會) was always worn, also during periods of work; another piece of cloth was draped over the left shoulder (upper garment, skr. uttarāsaṇga, yùduōluósēng 鬱多羅僧), covering the upper part of the body; the third robe, the outer garment (skr. saṃgāṭi, sēngqiélí 僧伽梨) was usually worn when the monk was in the public, for examples on begging tours; although the basic design of this outfit is quite simple, there were many complex variations concerning these robes and the outer robe could be made several strips (tiáo 條) of cloth (usually 5, 7, 9, 13, 15, or even more; each stip consists of several patches, gé 隔); there were also careful descriptions how to sew a robe, using different kinds of stiching technics; in China there were many controversies concerning the proper style of monks' robes; in the course of time the robe was highly charged with symbolism the the three robes sometimes represented different sets of Buddhist terms (e.g. the three poisons greed, anger, and ignorance and their respective elimination; another symbolic connection were the three realms 三界 or the three assemblis 三會). There is evidence that the original Indian style of robe was brought to China, but underwent changes in the course of time, and there was an adaption to Chinese customs, climate, etc. Gradually, there deveoped the sleeved robe, typical of East-Asian Buddhism, usually combined with trousers; at the end of the Tang - after having been criticised for long periods of time - this style of robe seems to have been firmly established; the outer robe - originally also a rectangular piece of cloth - became heavily charged with symbolism and were still made of a number a patches; however, although originally symbolizing the poverty of a monk, often the outer robe is China (and later Japan) was eventually made of especially fine and colorful materials, becoming a status symbol for high-ranking priests. In order to hold the robe in place, eventually a ring and ribbon (gouniu 鉤紐) was attached to it. In medieval China there was also an extended discussion about the use of silk for monks' robes since the production of silk involved the taking of life; however, eventually the use of silk was firmly established since it also was the easiest obtainable material)
僧伽梨   sēng qié lí OC: sɯɯŋ ɡal ril MC: səŋ gʷɑ li 2 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: outer monks' robe (see 三衣) skr. saṃghati
   nà OC: nuub MC: nəp 1 Attribution
  • nBUDDH: (monks') robe (short for nàyī 納(衲)衣)
納衣 / 衲衣   nà yī OC: nuub qɯl MC: nəp ʔɨi nà yī OC: nuub qɯl MC: nəp ʔɨi 1 Attribution
  • NPmonk's robe
紫衣   zǐ yī OC: tseʔ qɯl MC: tsiɛ ʔɨi 1 Attribution
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: the purple robe (robe given to monks of distinction, a practice which began during the Tang)
九條   jiǔ tiáo OC: kuʔ ɡ-lɯɯw MC: kɨu deu 0 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: this refers to the nine pieces of cloth the traditional monk's rope (jiāshā 袈裟; skr. kaṣāya) is made of
安陀會   ān tuó huì OC: qaan laal ɡloobs MC: ʔɑn dɑ ɦɑi 0 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: inner lower robe, typically worn by Indian monks (a rectangular piece of cloth wrapped arouned the waist, worn at all occasions, also during work); skr. antarvāsa (see 三衣) (also referred to as nèiyī 內衣, wǔtiáoyī 五條衣, zhōngsùyī 中宿衣)
鬱多羅僧   yù duō luó sēng OC: qud k-laal b-raal sɯɯŋ MC: ʔi̯ut tɑ lɑ səŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: skr. antarvāsa, the inner upper robe of an Indian Buddhist monk (also referred to as shàngyī 上衣, see 三衣)

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: