ASSISTANT  助手

OFFICIAL who is EMPLOYED TO SERVE OR HELP ANOTHER MORE SENIOR OFFICIAL.
HELPERDEPUTYSECOND-IN-COMMANDSECONDNUMBER TWORIGHT-HAND MAN/WOMANAIDEATTENDANTMATEAPPRENTICEJUNIORAUXILIARYSUBORDINATEHIRED HANDHIRED HELP
Taxonoymy

SERVANT

Antonymy

LEAD

See also

HELPSERVEHELP

Kind Of

OFFICIAL

Old Chinese Criteria

[ARCHAIC/CURRENT]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[HUMBLE/NOBLE]

[PRECISE/VAGUE]

[TECHNICAL-TERM/CURRENT-TERM]

1. The most general and most current colourless word for an assistant to any official in any capacity, but often in the capacity of a sernior minister, is fǔ 輔.

[GENERAL], [VAGUE]

2. Chéng 丞 became especially common from Qin times onwards, and this bureaucratic term can refer to any assistant in formal employment.

[SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

3. Fù 副 is a bureaucratic term that refers to a junior official of any kind in formal employment in Han times.

[HUMBLE], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

4. Èr 貳 is a standard archaic word referring to minor assistants in formal employment (ZHOULI).

[ARCHAIC], [HUMBLE]

5. Zuǒ 佐 refers to a person closely linked to the master and taking charge of minor practical matters, a personal servant, perhaps a secretary, but the word refers generally to a "helping hand".

[HUMBLE]

6. Xiàng 相 can be used to refer to an assistant at any level, or to the functions fulfilled by such an assistant. See HELP

[SPECIFIC]

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006 GOVERNMENT/LAW 7.

副,使用最普通,幾乎可加在任何官名前表示副職。

貳,一般單用或與他詞連用作佐官之別稱,主要用於上古。

丞,作官名組合類詞,乃取輔助義。次、亞均排序為第二位,用於別名的副職組合: “ 次 ” 用於上古秦漢, “ 亞 ” 使用較多。

倅,唐以後才開始作為副貳官別稱的類詞。

簉,構成的官名別稱主要在宋代,使用較少。

GOVERNMENT/LAW 14. 輔佐。 ACT AS ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISITANT

輔,通稱。

弼,通過諫諍匡正的方式而佐。

相,力大功大之佐。翊,護衛之佐,有古雅、莊重色彩。

佐,側重於具體事務之助。

佑,帶有偏護意味之佐。贊,帶有開創性之佐。

GOVERNMENT/LAW 15. 輔,上古用以泛稱輔國大臣。

弼,上古泛稱能諫諍匡正的大臣。

相,為君主出謀劃策、制定方針政策、總領政事的大臣,作類詞。

佐,泛稱輔佐的重臣;也作各級官員下屬或副手的類詞。

贊,輔助性職官的類詞,表示擔當各種具體事務的官名。

Some terms are purely bureaucratic (chéng 丞, fù 副, èr 貳 ), others include a broader human or moral perspective and include general forms of support (xiàng 相, fǔ 輔 ).

Modern Chinese Criteria

助手

副手

助理

幫辦

下手

幫手

羽翼

臂助

僚佐

幕賓

幕僚

幕友

師爺

入幕賓

老夫子

西賓

西席

門客

門下

門人

清客

食客

左右手

膀臂 refers to a particularly reliable aide.

股肱 (lit) refers in a dignified way to a senior advisor.

鷹犬

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

HUANG JINGUI 1995 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao 86

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 387

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 9
  • n : 8
  • v[adN] : 7
  • n(post-N) : 4
  • vadN : 4
  • vi : 3
  • nadN : 3
  • NP : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • NP{N1&N2} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 14
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 韓非子 : 4
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 論語 : 3
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   xiàng OC: sqaŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ 11 Attributions

Xiàng 相 can be used to refer to an assistant at any level, or to the functions fulfilled by such an assistant. See HELP

  • nhelper; assistant 十六相
  • viactact as an administrative assistant
  • vt(oN)act as an assistant to a contextually determinate person)
  • vtoNact as administrative assistant to
  • vtoNN=humanact as assistant to 相夫子"act as an assistant to the master"
  • vtoNcausativemake one's assistant
   zuǒ OC: skaals MC: tsɑ 8 Attributions

Zuǒ 佐 refers to a person closely linked to the master and taking charge of minor practical matters, a personal servant, perhaps a secretary, but the word refers generally to a "helping hand". [HUMBLE]

  • n(post-N)(senior) assistant of a contextually determinate N
  • DELETEassistant in charge of small matters
  • vtoNserve as a (senior) assistant under
   fǔ OC: baʔ MC: bi̯o 8 Attributions

The most general and most current colourless word for an assistant to any official in any capacity, but often in the capacity of a sernior minister, is fǔ 輔. [GENERAL], [VAGUE]

  • v[adN]assistant; helper; senior aide; most important minister
  • vadNassistant HSWZ 輔臣
   chéng OC: ɡjɯŋ MC: dʑɨŋ 5 Attributions

Chéng 丞 became especially common from Qin times onwards, and this bureaucratic term can refer to any assistant in formal employment. [SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

  • nassistant official
  • nadNassistant
   èr OC: njis MC: ȵi 3 Attributions

Èr 貳 is a standard archaic word referring to minor assistants in formal employment (ZHOULI). [ARCHAIC], [HUMBLE]

  • nsubjectassistant
  • vadNassistant
   bì OC: brɯd MC: bit 2 Attributions
  • nassistant; minister
   fù OC: phɯɡs MC: phɨu 1 Attribution

Fù 副 is a bureaucratic term that refers to a junior official of any kind in formal employment in Han times. [HUMBLE], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

  • nadNassistant (LSCQ)
腹心   fù xīn OC: puɡ slɯm MC: puk sim 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1&N2}(by extension) dedicated collaborators; helpers
   shào OC: hmljews MC: ɕiɛu 1 Attribution
  • vadNjunior; assistant
陪乘   péi chéng MC: -- -- OC: bɯɯ -- 1 Attribution
  • NPcarriage assistant

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: