BEAM  

LARGE TIMBER USED TO BUILD BUILDINGS.
JOISTLINTELRAFTERPURLINSPARGIRDERBALKTIMBERTWO-BY-FOURPLANKSUPPORTSTRUTSCANTLINGTRANSOMSTRINGERCOLLAR BEAMI-BEAM
Taxonoymy

PILLARTHRESHOLDRAFTERMAST

Kind Of

TIMBER

Old Chinese Criteria

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[GENERAL-USE/TECHNICAL-TERM]

1. The current general term for a beam is liáng 梁, but specifically this refers to the north-south orientated rafters.

[GENERAL!]

2. Dòng 棟 refers to the ridge-pole of the roof, oriented usually in the east-western direction. It is also general term for the east-western beams in a roof construction. [HUANG 1995: 1044]

[SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

3. Jí 極 refers to the beam at the top of the roof which is only visible from inside the house, and is thus a specific term for dòng 棟 in its specific meaning.

[SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

4. Luán 欒 refers to a bent piece of wood on the top of a pillar. [HANYU DACIDIAN: vol. 4. pp. 1371; ill.: HAYASHI 1976: pp. 72, tab. 4-50]

[SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

5. Jí 极 is another term for the ridge-pole used in pre-Qin times; it does not generally refer to the east-southern beams: [HUANG 1995: 1044]

[SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

6. Fú 桴 refers to the east-western beam which is second when counted from the ridge-pole: [HUANG 1995: 1044 - 1045]

[SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

7. Méi 楣 is another term for fú 桴. Later, the word began to be used for the horizontal beam above the door. [HUANG 1995: 1044 - 1045]

[SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

8. Guǐ 庪 refers to the third east-western beam. [HUANG 1995: 1045]

[SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

9. Yǐn (written like 隱 but with 木 radical) and fén 棼 both refer to the highest east-western ridge-pole of the double-roof. [HUANG 1995: 1045]

[SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

10. Lǔ (written 木 + 呂 ) refers to the beam supporting the rafters of the roof. [HANYU DACIDIAN: vol. 4, pp. 973]

NB: A standard building has the main gate facing south, and all beams in the north-south direction are called liáng 梁, all beams in the east-west direction are called dòng 棟.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

ARCHITECTURE 9.

椽,圓椽,後作椽子總稱。

桷( ju[U+00e9] ),方椽。

榱( cu[U+012b] ),唐以前椽的總稱,側重排列有等差。

橑( l[U+01ce]o ),復屋的椽子。

ARCHITECTURE 10.

梁,柱上南北向大木通稱,也可作棟梁泛稱。梁也稱杗、杗廇。

棟,屋脊最高的東西向長橫木;又作屋棟通稱。最高的棟,上古、秦漢方言也稱為極。

楣、桴,中棟以下第二棟,楣,又常稱門框上橫梁。

庪( gu[U+01d0] ),近檐的棟木。� „ ( y[U+00ec]n ),隱於天花上面的梁,又指復屋的最高棟。

棼,復屋或重屋(樓)之棟。欐,曾作棟梁泛稱。在專業文獻中,棟稱桁、檁、槫,梁稱 ©Ÿ 。

ARCHITECTURE 18.

闑,門中所豎長木,可固定門扇,又有區分主賓人、公私事的禮制作用。

閫,專指門中所豎短木,低於車軸高度。

橛有時也可特指闑。

閾,門下橫木,作內外之限。

切,有砌飾的門限。

柣,門限別稱。

閣,設置在門扇旁防止已開門扇自動閉合的長木。

棖,門兩旁所豎保護門的木柱。

楔,有時特指門兩旁的木柱。

Modern Chinese Criteria

檁條

檁子

正梁

脊檁

大梁

後梁

橫梁

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.51

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BEAM

trabs or trabes refer to a longish and narrow beam, rather like a substantial pole.

tignum refers to a shorter and thicker beam, like an elongated block.

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 108

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 5

Attributions by text

  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 韓非子 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   liáng OC: k-raŋ MC: li̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions

The current general term for a beam is liáng 梁, but specifically this refers to the north-south orientated rafters. [GENERAL!]

  • nbeam; specifically: beam in the north-south direction
   dòng OC: tooŋs MC: tuŋ 1 Attribution

Dòng 棟 refers generally to east-west-directed beams in a building, but the word also refers specifically to the beam at the top of the roof. [SPECIFIC]

  • nbeam
   qiáo OC: ɡrew MC: giɛu 1 Attribution
  • nbeam; crosspiece
   zhòu OC: rliwɡs MC: ɖɨu 0 Attributions
  • nHN: (generally) beam
   guǐ OC: kʷreʔ MC: kiɛ 0 Attributions

Guǐ 庪 refers to the third east-western beam. [HUANG 1995: 1045] [SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

  • nZHENG XUAN, YILIZHU: last but one lower dòng 棟
   jí OC: ɡab MC: giɛp 0 Attributions
  • nbeam
   máng OC: maaŋ MC: mɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • npost-Han: TANG: beam in the north-south direction, same as liáng 梁 in its specific meaning
   fú OC: bu MC: bɨu 0 Attributions
  • nbeam
   fén OC: bɯn MC: bi̯un 0 Attributions
  • neast-west beam, ridge of a roof either on the first or on the second level in a double-roof house
   jí OC: ɡɯɡ MC: gɨk 0 Attributions

Jí 極 refers to the beam at the top of the roof which is only visible from inside the house, and is thus a specific term for dòng 棟 in its specific meaning. [SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

  • nZHUANG: ridge of a roof
   méi OC: mril MC: mi 0 Attributions

Méi 楣 is another term for fú 桴. Later, the word began to be used for the horizontal beam above the door. [HUANG 1995: 1044 - 1045] [SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

  • nYILI: second traverse east-west beam, counted from top
   yìn OC: qɯns MC: ʔɨn 0 Attributions
  • nSHIMING: east-west beam at the top of a two-layer building
   lì OC: b-reels MC: lei 0 Attributions
  • nSIMA XIANGRU, SHANGLINFU: general term for a beam
   luán OC: b-roon MC: lʷɑn 0 Attributions

Luán 欒 refers to a bent piece of wood on the top of a pillar. [HANYU DACIDIAN: vol. 4. pp. 1371; ill.: HAYASHI 1976: pp. 72, tab. 4-50] [SPECIFIC], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

       jué MC: -- OC: -- 0 Attributions
    • nupright beam; short wooden post, stake

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: