DESTROY USING FIRE so as to CAUSE TO BECOME ASHES.
Old Chinese Criteria
1. Shāo 燒 refers to the any attempt at burning something which may or may not be successful, and this attempt may be constructive or destructive in purpose.
2. Fén 焚 refers to a deliberate and successful act of destroying something by burning it up.
3. Jiāo 焦 refers to the process of incinceration which may or may not be complete.
4. Zhuó 灼 refers to slight burning or searing as a result of small fire.
5. Huǒ 火 "set fire to" is a rather colourless and neutral way of referring to fires of natural origin.
6. Fán 燔 "burn" can refer generally to setting fire to things, but the word also refers specifically to the frying of foodstuffs. See COOK.
7. Chì 熾 describes a process of dramatically intense incinceration.
8. Yàn 焰／燄 is a dramatic rare word referring to something flaring up into intense fire.
9. Huǐ 燬 refers to a military attack by fire as part of a campaign, or to the burning down of enemy property.
10. Rán 然／燃 refers to the act of setting something alight without necessarily burning it down.
HUANG JINGUI 2006
SACRIFICE 14. 禋，燒柴升煙以祭神靈，強調的是煙氣，引申為泛指虔誠的祭祀。
Modern Chinese Criteria
燒 is the current modern word for burning something.
焚 (lit) refers to deliberate incineration.
rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH ／
ACCENDERE (causative) Excellent analysis.
ardere is to be in visible glowing heat.
flagrare is to be in visible bright flames.
incendere is to burn from within, as a house.
accendere is to set fire to at a certain point on the outside.
inflammare is to set on fire so as to create a sea of flames.
combuere is to burn up completely and reduce completely to ashes.
cremare is to burn up and reduce to ashes with bright flames.
Attributions by syntactic funtion
Attributions by text
- 春秋左傳 : 43
- 韓非子 : 24
- 論衡 : 22
- 管子 : 13
- 祖堂集 : 13
- 呂氏春秋 : 11
- 禮記 : 9
- 淮南子 : 9
- 史記 : 9
- 賢愚經 : 8
- 莊子 : 6
- 百喻經 : 6
- 韓詩外傳 : 6
- 毛詩 : 5
- 戰國策 : 4
- 臨濟錄 : 3
- 孟子 : 3
- 法集要頌經 : 3
- 法句經 : 3
- 類說 : 2
- 說苑 : 2
- 新論-漢-桓譚 : 2
- 墨子 : 1
- 阮籍集四卷 : 1
- 論語 : 1
- 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
- 翻譯名義集 : 1
- 六祖壇經 : 1
- 尚書 : 1
焚 fén OC: bun MC: bi̯un 76 Attributions
The commonest general word for large-scale destructive incinceration is fén 焚, but the word has a special focus on the deliberateness and the destructive result of the act of burning.
- nabactthe action of burning (grass and weeds on fields)
- viprocessburn down; burn; catch fire
- vtoNburn up, burn down; set fire to; scorch
- vtoNconativetry to set fire to something in order to destroy it
- vtoNpassivebe burned
- vtoNN=massget burnt up 玉石俱焚
- vtoNreflexive.自burn (oneself) [=MSC]
燒 shāo OC: qhljew MC: ɕiɛu 50 Attributions
Shāo 燒 refers to the act of burning on any scale and for any purpose.
- nabactthe act of setting fire to something
- viburn, catch fire; get burnt
- vi0there is a fire
- vt(oN)omburn the contextually determinate objects
- vt[oN]burn down things
- vtoNcause to burn, set fire to; (slash and) burn; burn up so as to destroy
- vtoNpassivebe burnt, have been burnt; get burnt
- vtoNproduceproduce by burning, produce by incineration
燃 / 然 rán OC: njen MC: ȵiɛn rán OC: njen MC: ȵiɛn 12 Attributions
Rán 然／燃 refers to the act of setting something alight without necessarily burning it down. Rán 然／燃 refers to the act of setting something alight without necessarily burning it down.
- vtoNinchoativeto start burning; to be lit
- viignite; get lit, start burning; burn (MO) for 燃
- vtoNcausativeignite (something), cause something to start burning
- vadNlit up
- vt(oN)light up the contextually determinate N
火 huǒ OC: qphaalʔ MC: hʷɑ 9 Attributions
Huǒ 火"set fire to" is a rather colourless and neutral way of referring to fires of natural origin.
- vadNon fire; burning
- viprocessto burn; to catch fire [also: keep up the fire; have on fire][CA]
- vtoNset fire to; burn
- vt[oN]set fire to something
- viautonymto burn
- vi0there was a fire; a fire broke out (at a certain place)
焦 jiāo OC: tsew MC: tsiɛu 9 Attributions
Jiāo 焦 refers to the process of incinceration which may or may not be complete.
- viprocessbe burning; be scorched
- vtoNto burn
- vtoNN=massget burned, get singed
燔 fán OC: ban MC: bi̯ɐn 7 Attributions
Fán 燔 "burn" can refer generally to setting fire to things, but the word also refers specifically to the frying of foodstuffs. See COOK.
- vtoNburn, burn down; burn in
- vtoNpassivebe burned (to death)
- vtoNmiddle voicebe destroyed by fire; be burned down
灼 / 焯 / 灼焯晫 zhuó OC: pljewɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐk zhuó OC: ntjewɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐk OC: MC: 5 Attributions
Zhuó 灼 refers to slight burning or searing as a result of small fire. Zhuó 灼 refers to slight burning or searing as a result of small fire. Zhuó 灼 refers to slight burning or searing as a result of small fire.
- vtoNsear, burn on small fire
- vtoNN=massget slightly burnt by a small amount of fire
- nabprocessprocess of getting seared
燋灼 / 灼 OC: MC: zhuó OC: pljewɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐk 5 Attributions
- vimiddle voiceburn; get burnt
- vtoNpassiveget burnt or intensely heated up
荼毗 tú pí OC: laa bi MC: duo̝ bi 4 Attributions
- VPadNbuddhistBUDDH: cremating, of cremation
- VPtoNbuddhistBUDDH: be cremated; skr. jhāpita
燎 liǎo OC: ɡ-rewʔ MC: liɛu 3 Attributions
- vtoNburn; torch
熾 chì OC: khljɯɡs MC: tɕhɨ 3 Attributions
Chì 熾 describes a process of dramatically intense incinceration.
- vadNburning, blazing
- viburn intensely, blaze away
- vtoNburn incense near N????
焦枯 jiāo kū OC: tsew khaa MC: tsiɛu khuo̝ 3 Attributions
- VPiresultativeget scorched so as to get all dried up
惔 tán OC: ɡ-laam MC: dɑm 2 Attributions
- vifigurativebe aflame; be burning; be burning with grief
烈 liè OC: b-red MC: liɛt 2 Attributions
- vadNblazing, burning
- vito burn; to blaze
焰 yàn OC: k-lamʔ MC: jiɛm 2 Attributions
Yàn 焰／燄 is a dramatic rare word referring to something flaring up into intense fire.
- vi.redprocessburn intensely
- vifigurativeflare up
點 diǎn OC: k-leemʔ MC: tem 2 Attributions
- vtoNcausativecause to burn > set fire to, lit (a torch/candle); heat up/boil (water)
樵 qiáo OC: dzew MC: dziɛu 1 Attribution
- vtoNto burn with firewood
烘 / 烘 hóng OC: ɡooŋ MC: ɦuŋ hōng OC: qhooŋ MC: huŋ 1 Attribution
- vtoNto burn
焰 yàn OC: k-loms MC: jiɛm 1 Attribution
- viflare up; burn along
燬 huǐ OC: qhʷralʔ MC: hiɛ 1 Attribution
Huǐ 燬 refers to a military attack by fire as part of a campaign, or to the burning down of enemy property.
- viburn, be burning
爇 ruò OC: ŋjod MC: ȵiɛt 1 Attribution
- vtoNburn down (ZUO)
- vtoNpassivebe burned
赤 chì OC: khjaɡ MC: tɕhiɛk 1 Attribution
- vtoNscorch (the earth etc)
灼焚 zhuó fén OC: pljewɡ bun MC: tɕi̯ɐk bi̯un 1 Attribution
- VPtoNintensitiveget all scorched
焦燃 jiāo rán OC: tsew njen MC: tsiɛu ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
- VPimiddle voiceget scorched
煎靡 jiān mǐ OC: tsen mralʔ MC: tsiɛn miɛ 1 Attribution
- VPtoNburn up
燒滅 shāo miè OC: qhljew med MC: ɕiɛu miɛt 1 Attribution
- VPtoNresultativeburn up
燒火 shāo huǒ OC: qhljew qphaalʔ MC: ɕiɛu hʷɑ 1 Attribution
- VPi0processthere is/was a fire (in the place indicated by the topic)
燒燋 shāo jiāo OC: qhljew tsew MC: ɕiɛu tsiɛu 1 Attribution
- vtoNab[act]intensitiveget all burnt
燒盡 shāo jìn OC: qhljew dzinʔ MC: ɕiɛu dzin 1 Attribution
- VPtoNpassivebe completely burnt up/down
燋壞 jiāo huài OC: tsew ɡruuls MC: tsiɛu ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
- VPimiddle voiceget burnt
- VPtoNpassivebe burnt up
燋枯 jiāo kū OC: tsew khaa MC: tsiɛu khuo̝ 1 Attribution
- VPtoNmiddle voiceget scorched, get charred
熾焰 chì yàn OC: khljɯɡs k-loms MC: tɕhɨ jiɛm 1 Attribution
熾燃 chì rán OC: khljɯɡs njen MC: tɕhɨ ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
- nabprocessthe burning; conflagration
闍維 shé wéi OC: ɡlja k-lul MC: dʑɣɛ ji 1 Attribution
- VPtoNbuddhistBUDDH: to cremate
炊 chuī MC: tsyhwe OC: khjol 1 Attribution
- vtoNburn N; make fire using N (typically for cooking)
烙 lào OC: ɡ-raaɡ MC: lɑk 0 Attributions
焮 xìn OC: qhɯns MC: hɨn 0 Attributions
- vtoNto burn
焠 cuì OC: skhuuds MC: tshuo̝i 0 Attributions
- viK. to burn (XUN)
熯 hàn OC: qhlaans MC: hɑn 0 Attributions
- vtoNto burn
熸 jiān OC: skam MC: tsiɛm 0 Attributions
- vtoNmiddle voicebe exposed to fire; get burnt
燀 chǎn OC: thjanʔ MC: tɕhiɛn 0 Attributions
- viburn intensely
焰熾 yàn chì OC: k-loms khljɯɡs MC: jiɛm tɕhɨ 0 Attributions
- viprocessburn furiously
Existing SW for
Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: