BURN  

DESTROY USING FIRE so as to CAUSE TO BECOME ASHES.
BE ON FIREBE ALIGHTBE ABLAZEBLAZEGO UPGO UP IN SMOKEBE IN FLAMESBE AFLAMESMOLDERGLOW
Taxonoymy

IGNITE

Antonymy

EXTINGUISH

See also

HOT

Kind Of

DESTROY

Old Chinese Criteria

1. Shāo 燒 refers to the any attempt at burning something which may or may not be successful, and this attempt may be constructive or destructive in purpose.

2. Fén 焚 refers to a deliberate and successful act of destroying something by burning it up.

3. Jiāo 焦 refers to the process of incinceration which may or may not be complete.

4. Zhuó 灼 refers to slight burning or searing as a result of small fire.

5. Huǒ 火 "set fire to" is a rather colourless and neutral way of referring to fires of natural origin.

6. Fán 燔 "burn" can refer generally to setting fire to things, but the word also refers specifically to the frying of foodstuffs. See COOK.

7. Chì 熾 describes a process of dramatically intense incinceration.

8. Yàn 焰/燄 is a dramatic rare word referring to something flaring up into intense fire.

9. Huǐ 燬 refers to a military attack by fire as part of a campaign, or to the burning down of enemy property.

10. Rán 然/燃 refers to the act of setting something alight without necessarily burning it down.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

SACRIFICE 14. 禋,燒柴升煙以祭神靈,強調的是煙氣,引申為泛指虔誠的祭祀。

祡,燒柴以祭天神,強調的是燒柴。

槱,聚柴燃燒以祭神靈,強調聚集。

燎,焚柴祭天,強調焚燒。

Modern Chinese Criteria

燒 is the current modern word for burning something.

焚 (lit) refers to deliberate incineration.

燒火

點火

舉火

生火

籠火

打火

燃燒

焚燒

烈焰騰騰

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 21.46

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 466

ACCENDERE (causative) Excellent analysis.

ARDERE

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BURN

ardere is to be in visible glowing heat.

flagrare is to be in visible bright flames.

incendere is to burn from within, as a house.

accendere is to set fire to at a certain point on the outside.

inflammare is to set on fire so as to create a sea of flames.

combuere is to burn up completely and reduce completely to ashes.

cremare is to burn up and reduce to ashes with bright flames.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 20

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 312

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

COMBUSTIO

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 62

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 464

WANG TONGWEI 2010 "三國志"同義詞及其歷史演變 341-357

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 144
  • vi : 32
  • VPtoN : 10
  • nab : 5
  • vadN : 5
  • VPi : 5
  • vt(oN) : 4
  • vt[oN] : 2
  • vi0 : 2
  • vtoNab[act] : 1
  • VPi0 : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • vi.red : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 43
  • 韓非子 : 24
  • 論衡 : 22
  • 管子 : 13
  • 祖堂集 : 13
  • 呂氏春秋 : 11
  • 禮記 : 9
  • 淮南子 : 9
  • 史記 : 9
  • 賢愚經 : 8
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 百喻經 : 6
  • 韓詩外傳 : 6
  • 毛詩 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 類說 : 2
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 翻譯名義集 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   fén OC: bun MC: bi̯un 76 Attributions

The commonest general word for large-scale destructive incinceration is fén 焚, but the word has a special focus on the deliberateness and the destructive result of the act of burning.

  • nabactthe action of burning (grass and weeds on fields)
  • vadNburnt-down
  • viprocessburn down; burn; catch fire
  • vtoNburn up, burn down; set fire to; scorch
  • vtoNconativetry to set fire to something in order to destroy it
  • vtoNpassivebe burned
  • vtoNN=massget burnt up 玉石俱焚
  • vtoNreflexive.自burn (oneself) [=MSC]
   shāo OC: qhljew MC: ɕiɛu 50 Attributions

Shāo 燒 refers to the act of burning on any scale and for any purpose.

  • nabactthe act of setting fire to something
  • viburn, catch fire; get burnt
  • vi0there is a fire
  • vt(oN)omburn the contextually determinate objects
  • vt[oN]burn down things
  • vtoNcause to burn, set fire to; (slash and) burn; burn up so as to destroy
  • vtoNpartlysinge
  • vtoNpassivebe burnt, have been burnt; get burnt
  • vtoNproduceproduce by burning, produce by incineration
燃 / 然   rán OC: njen MC: ȵiɛn rán OC: njen MC: ȵiɛn 12 Attributions

Rán 然/燃 refers to the act of setting something alight without necessarily burning it down. Rán 然/燃 refers to the act of setting something alight without necessarily burning it down.

  • vtoNinchoativeto start burning; to be lit
  • viignite; get lit, start burning; burn (MO) for 燃
  • vtoNcausativeignite (something), cause something to start burning
  • vadNlit up
  • vt(oN)light up the contextually determinate N
   huǒ OC: qphaalʔ MC: hʷɑ 9 Attributions

Huǒ 火"set fire to" is a rather colourless and neutral way of referring to fires of natural origin.

  • vadNon fire; burning
  • viprocessto burn; to catch fire [also: keep up the fire; have on fire][CA]
  • vtoNset fire to; burn
  • vt[oN]set fire to something
  • viautonymto burn
  • vi0there was a fire; a fire broke out (at a certain place)
   jiāo OC: tsew MC: tsiɛu 9 Attributions

Jiāo 焦 refers to the process of incinceration which may or may not be complete.

  • viprocessbe burning; be scorched
  • vtoNto burn
  • vtoNN=massget burned, get singed
   fán OC: ban MC: bi̯ɐn 7 Attributions

Fán 燔 "burn" can refer generally to setting fire to things, but the word also refers specifically to the frying of foodstuffs. See COOK.

  • vtoNburn, burn down; burn in
  • vtoNpassivebe burned (to death)
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe destroyed by fire; be burned down
灼 / 焯 / 灼焯晫   zhuó OC: pljewɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐk zhuó OC: ntjewɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐk  OC:  MC:  5 Attributions

Zhuó 灼 refers to slight burning or searing as a result of small fire. Zhuó 灼 refers to slight burning or searing as a result of small fire. Zhuó 灼 refers to slight burning or searing as a result of small fire.

  • vtoNsear, burn on small fire
  • vtoNN=massget slightly burnt by a small amount of fire
  • nabprocessprocess of getting seared
燋灼 / 灼    OC:  MC:  zhuó OC: pljewɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐk 5 Attributions
  • vtoNburn
  • vimiddle voiceburn; get burnt
  • vtoNpassiveget burnt or intensely heated up
荼毗   tú pí OC: laa bi MC: duo̝ bi 4 Attributions
  • VPadNbuddhistBUDDH: cremating, of cremation
  • VPtoNbuddhistBUDDH: be cremated; skr. jhāpita
   liǎo OC: ɡ-rewʔ MC: liɛu 3 Attributions
  • vtoNburn; torch
  • viprocessburn
  • nabprocessburning
   chì OC: khljɯɡs MC: tɕhɨ 3 Attributions

Chì 熾 describes a process of dramatically intense incinceration.

  • vadNburning, blazing
  • viburn intensely, blaze away
  • vtoNburn incense near N????
焦枯   jiāo kū OC: tsew khaa MC: tsiɛu khuo̝ 3 Attributions
  • VPiresultativeget scorched so as to get all dried up
   tán OC: ɡ-laam MC: dɑm 2 Attributions
  • vifigurativebe aflame; be burning; be burning with grief
   liè OC: b-red MC: liɛt 2 Attributions
  • vadNblazing, burning
  • vito burn; to blaze
   yàn OC: k-lamʔ MC: jiɛm 2 Attributions

Yàn 焰/燄 is a dramatic rare word referring to something flaring up into intense fire.

  • vi.redprocessburn intensely
  • vifigurativeflare up
   diǎn OC: k-leemʔ MC: tem 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativecause to burn > set fire to, lit (a torch/candle); heat up/boil (water)
   qiáo OC: dzew MC: dziɛu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNto burn with firewood
烘 / 烘   hóng OC: ɡooŋ MC: ɦuŋ hōng OC: qhooŋ MC: huŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNto burn
   yàn OC: k-loms MC: jiɛm 1 Attribution
  • viflare up; burn along
   huǐ OC: qhʷralʔ MC: hiɛ 1 Attribution

Huǐ 燬 refers to a military attack by fire as part of a campaign, or to the burning down of enemy property.

  • viburn, be burning
   ruò OC: ŋjod MC: ȵiɛt 1 Attribution
  • vtoNburn down (ZUO)
  • vtoNpassivebe burned
   chì OC: khjaɡ MC: tɕhiɛk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNscorch (the earth etc)
灼焚   zhuó fén OC: pljewɡ bun MC: tɕi̯ɐk bi̯un 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNintensitiveget all scorched
焦燃   jiāo rán OC: tsew njen MC: tsiɛu ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPimiddle voiceget scorched
煎靡   jiān mǐ OC: tsen mralʔ MC: tsiɛn miɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNburn up
燒滅   shāo miè OC: qhljew med MC: ɕiɛu miɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeburn up
燒火   shāo huǒ OC: qhljew qphaalʔ MC: ɕiɛu hʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPi0processthere is/was a fire (in the place indicated by the topic)
燒燋   shāo jiāo OC: qhljew tsew MC: ɕiɛu tsiɛu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNab[act]intensitiveget all burnt
燒盡   shāo jìn OC: qhljew dzinʔ MC: ɕiɛu dzin 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe completely burnt up/down
燋壞   jiāo huài OC: tsew ɡruuls MC: tsiɛu ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • VPimiddle voiceget burnt
  • VPtoNpassivebe burnt up
燋枯   jiāo kū OC: tsew khaa MC: tsiɛu khuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNmiddle voiceget scorched, get charred
熾焰   chì yàn OC: khljɯɡs k-loms MC: tɕhɨ jiɛm 1 Attribution
  • VPiprocessburn
熾燃   chì rán OC: khljɯɡs njen MC: tɕhɨ ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • nabprocessthe burning; conflagration
闍維   shé wéi OC: ɡlja k-lul MC: dʑɣɛ ji 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNbuddhistBUDDH: to cremate
   chuī MC: tsyhwe OC: khjol 1 Attribution
  • vtoNburn N; make fire using N (typically for cooking)
   lào OC: ɡ-raaɡ MC: lɑk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNscorch
   xìn OC: qhɯns MC: hɨn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNto burn
   cuì OC: skhuuds MC: tshuo̝i 0 Attributions
  • viK. to burn (XUN)
   hàn OC: qhlaans MC: hɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNto burn
   jiān OC: skam MC: tsiɛm 0 Attributions
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe exposed to fire; get burnt
   chǎn OC: thjanʔ MC: tɕhiɛn 0 Attributions
  • viburn intensely
焰熾   yàn chì OC: k-loms khljɯɡs MC: jiɛm tɕhɨ 0 Attributions
  • viprocessburn furiously

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: